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ljlindrose

Chapter 11 - Cardio

QuestionAnswer
Name the four chambers of the heart right atrium, left atriumright ventricle, left ventricle
A __________ is the inability of the heart to maintain a steady rhythm. cardiac arrhythmia
Name the four heart valves. tricuspid, mitral (bicuspid), pulmonary and aortic
What are the two phases of the heartbeat? diastole (relaxation)systole (contraction)
A type of cardiac arrhythmia that is characterized by the heart exhibiting irregular contractions is called ____________ fibrillation
This congenital defect of the heart is characterized by small holes in the septa between the atria or the ventricles septal defects
This congenital malformation of the heart involves four distinct defects. tetralogy of Fallot
Hardening or plaque filled arteris is called. atherosclerosis
This disease is a result of atherosclerosis in the arteries of the heart. coronary artery disease (CAD)
When the mitral valve does not close properly it is referred to as _____________________. mitral valve prolapse
The abnormal widening or dilation of an artery is called a ________________________. cardiac aneurysm
When blood flow has decreased or stopped to the heart leading to necrosis of a part of the myocardium is called a ________________. myocardial infarction
This procedure is characterized by the physician inserting a thin, flexible tube into the heart via a vein or artery. cardiac catherization
This diagnostic test is used to record the electricity flowing through the heart. electrocardiography (ECG)
This monitoring device is worn for a 24-hour period to detect cardiac arrhythmias. holter monitor
This procedure is performed to detour around blood vessels that have become blocked. coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG)
The circulation of blood through vessels from the heart to the lungs and then back to the heart again is called ________________. pulmonary circulation
The pathway of blood from theheart to the tissue capillaries and back to the heart is called ______________. systemic circulation
Name the three types of blood vessels in the body. arteries, veins, capillaries.
____________ are large blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart. arteries
Smaller branches of arteries are called _________. arterioles
Smallest blood vessel. Materials pass to the from the bloodstream through the thin walls. capillary
Small vein. venule
Thin walled vessel that carries blood from the body tissues and lungs back to the heart. vein
Largest vein in the body. Returns blood to the right atrium of the heart. superior and inferior vena cavae
Relaxation phase of the heartbeat. diastole
Specialized tissue int he wall between the atria. Electrical impulses pass from the pacemaker (SA node) through the AV node and the atrioventricular bundle or bundle of His toward the ventricles. atrioventricular node (AV node)
Inner lining of the heart. endocardium
Innermost lining of blood vessels. endothelium
Valve between the left atrium and the left ventricle; bicuspid valve. mitral valve
Abnormal heart sound caused by improper closure of the heart valves. murmur
Muscular, middle layer of the heart. myocardium
Gas that enters the blood through the lungs and travels to the heart to be pumped via arteries to all body cells. oxygen
Specialized nerve tissue in the right atrium that begins the heartbeat, where an electrical impulse originates. Pacemaker of the heart. sinoatrial node (SA node)
Double-layered membrane surrounding the heart. pericardium
Artery carrying oxygen-poor blood from the heart to the lungs. pulmonary artery
Valve positioned between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery pulmonary valve
Partiion or wall dividing a cavity; such as between the right and left atria (interatrial septum) and right an dleft ventricles (interventricular septum) septum
Contraction phase of the heartbeat. systole
One of two pairs of vessels carrying oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart. pulmonary vein
Very brief discharges of electricity, applied across the chest to stop arrhythmias. cardioversion (defibrillation)
Expandable slotted tubes that serve as permanent scaffolding devices. stents
A balloon-tipped catheter is inserted into a coronary artery to open the artery; stents are put in place. percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI); angioplasty
High blood pressure affecting the heart. hypertensive heart disease
Inflammation of the inner lining of the heart caused by bacteria. endocarditis
The heart is unable to pump its required amount of blood (more blood enters the herat from the veins than leaves through the arteries). congestive heart failure
Abnormalities in the heart at birth. congenital heart disease
Failure of proper conduction of impuleses from the SA node through the AV node to the atrioventricular bundle (bundle of His). bradycardia and heart block (atrioventricular block)
Rapid but regular contractions, usually of the atria. flutter
A blood clot (thrombus) forms in a large vein, usually in a lower limb. deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
High blood pressure. hypertension (HTN)
Blockage of blood vessels outside the heart. peripheral vascular disease (PVD)
Abnormally swollen and twisted veins, usually occurring the legs. varicose veins
X-ray imaging of blood vessels after injection of contrast material. angiography
Echoes generated by high-frequency sound waves produce images of the heart. echocardiography (ECHO)
Surgical removal of plaque from the inner layer of an artery. endarterectomy
Name the four distinct defects of tetralogy of Fallot. pulmonary artery stenosis, ventricular septal defect, shift of the aorta to the right, hypertorphy of the right ventricle
Largest artery in the body. aorta
A duct (ductus arteriosus) between the aorta and the pulmonary artery, which normally closes soon after birth, remains open (patent) patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)
Created by: ljlindrose61