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Nervous System

Chapter 6

Central Nervous System (CNS) composed of brain & spinal cord-integrating, processing, and coordinating sensory information & motor commands
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) spinal nerves & cranial nerves. bringing info in and taking info out
Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) sympathetic & parasympathetic considered part of the PNS, controls involuntary body activities
neuron main functional cell of the nervous system
cell body part of a basic multipolar neuron, contains the nucleus and most organelles
Dendrites part of a basic multipolar neuron, beaches that extends, detect messages & carry them to the cell body
axon part of a basic multipolar neuron, carries action potentials carries messages away from cell body
action potential electrical nerve messages
synapse (synaptic cleft) area where a neuron communicates with another body cell or another neuron, a fluid filled gap between the presynaptic neuron and the postsynaptic
neurotransmitter a messenger that can cross the synapse
norepinephrine neurotransmitter used in the brain and autonomic nervous system excitatory (fight or flight)
dopamine neurotransmitter can be used to prevent overstimulation of mm. in the limbic system, high levels can increase mood low levels decrease
serotonin neurotransmitter increase/decrease moods, influence sleep and awake cycles
gamma-aminobutyric Acid (GABA) neurotransmitter inhibitory effect in the brain and can decrease anxiety
acetylcholine neurotransmitter stimulates mm contractions and is used in parasympathetic nervous system (rest & digest) bodily responds
glutamate neurotransmitter main excitatory NT in brain
histamine neurotransmitter triggers gastric acid secretion, allergies, sleep/awake cycles
sensory neurons afferent, from body to CNS
motor neurons efferent, from receptors in CNS to body
interneurons association neurons, located in brain & spinal cord: allow sensory to communicate with motor
action potential neuron sending a message
dura matter brain/spinal meninges: outer layer, "hard mother"
arachnoid mater brain/spinal meninges: middle layer, cushion/ shock absorber, spinal tap
pia matter brain/spinal meninges: innermost layer, connected to the surface of the brain/spinal cord, thinnest/most delicate
dermatome a specific bilateral area of the skin surface monitored by an single pair of spinal nerves
plexus bundle of spinal nerves
cervical plexus c1-c5, phrenic nerve
brachial plexus c5-t1, axillary, radial, medial, musculocutanous & ulnar nerve
lumbar plexus L1-L4, controls lower abdomen & legs
sacral plexus L4-s4 sciatic nerve
brain stem medulla oblongata, pons & mescencephalon
medulla oblongata brain stem- lowest part, all messages must pass through, 5 of 12 cranial nerves attach here, fx: regulate heart rate, force of heart contraction, regulating distribution of blood flow, & rate of breathing
pons brain stem- on top of MO, bridges cerebellum to other areas of the brain & SC, 4 of 12 cranial nerves connect here, fx: respiratory rhythm center, manages depth of breath & transition from inhale to exhale
mesencephalon (mid brain) brain stem- on top of the pons, visual stimuli & generate visual & auditory responses, coordinates position of upper limbs, regulates basal nuclei & maintains consciousness
cerebellum underside of the cerebrum, left & right hemisphere, receives proprioceptive impute from SC, monitors all proprioceptive, visual, tactile, balance, & audio sensations, assists in coordinating motor mvmts, adjusting postural mm, & maintains balance
diencephalon sits atop brain stem
epithalamus diencephalon- pineal gland, part of chorioid plexus
thalamus diencephalon- relay center for sensory information and generates an emotional response to those stimuli
hypothalamus diencephalon- vital activities: swallow, regulates hunger & thirst, body temp, heart rate & blood pressure, circadian rhythms, motor responses during heighten emotional state, regulates release of some hormones main control center of the ANS
cerebrum largest area of the brain, 2 hemispheres divided into 4 lobes,
frontal lobe cerebrum- primary motor cortex: controls all voluntary mvmts of skeletal mm, somatic motor association area: coordination of learned mvmt, broca's area: motor speech area-mm used in speaking, prefrontal cortex: intellectual reasoning
parietal lobe cerebrum- primary sensory cortex & somatic sensory association area: *touch, taste, temperature, pressure, pain, vibration
temporal lobe cerebrum- auditory & olfactory cortex, receives and processed hearing & smell
occipital lobe cerebrum- visual cortex & visual association VISION
insula cerebrum- gustatory cortex TASTE
Wernicke's area cerebrum- general interpretive area, integrates all sensations handled by the parietal, temporal & occipital lobes
Created by: michellerolfs



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