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Pharm Ch. 36&37

What is the most common form of oral medication? Tablets
Medication that contains outer coating that does not dissolve until medication reaches the intestines. Enteric-coated tablets
Designed to slow the absorption of the drug Sustained-release tablets (extended release)
Can you crush or break sustained-released or enteric-coated tablets? NO
Why can't you crush a sustained-released tablet? This will cause the patient to recieve all of the drug at once which can lead to adverse effects and possible overdose.
Why can't you crush an enteric-coated tablet? Can cause the medication to be absorbed in the stomach rather than the intestine, leading to gastric irritation or possible destruction of the medication.
Buccal tablets are designed to: Dissolve between the cheek and gum, absorbing through the walls of numerous blood vessels in the inner cheek.
Sublingual tablets are designed to: Dissolve under the tongue and are absorbed by blood vessels there.
Do buccal or sublingual tablets need to be digested to enter bloodstream? No.
CAPSULE Gelatin shell containing a powder or pellets of medication.
Which are easier to swallow, tablets or capsules? Capsules
If the patient is unable to swallow the capsule: It can be opened and contents can be mixed with 1 to 2 teaspoons of soft food, such as applesauce or ice cream.
Why shouldn't you put crushed tablets in full servings? Because the patient may refuse to eat the serving and you will be unaware of how much medication was taken.
Medications that should not be crushed include: Buccal/sublingual tablets, effervescent tablets, enteric coated tablets, liquid-filled gel caps, medications that taste too bitter to swallow, mucous membrane irritants, neoplastic agents (chemotherapy), sustained-release tablets, orally disint. tablets
Forms of liquid medication: Elixir, solution, suspension, syrup
ELIXIR May contain sweeteners or flavorings, may contain water and alcohol. Generally clear in appearance.
SOLUTION Liquid that contains a dissolved substance.
SUSPENSION Contains fine particles of medication mixed with, but not dissolved in, a liquid. When mixture sits, particles drift to bottom of the liquid.
SYRUP Concentrated aqueous preparation of sugars, with or without flavoring agents, and medical substances.
Created by: loweunde