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Muscular System

Chapter 5

Skeletal muscle striated, voluntary, mutinucleanated
smooth muscle in walls of hollow visceral organs, uninucleate, involuntary,
peristalsis movement by squeezing
cardiac muscle striated & involuntary, connected by INTERCALATED DISKS
sarcolemma membrane of a mm cell
sarcoplasm cytoplasms of a mm cell
Transverse Tubules (T-tubules) passageways which run perpendicular to the mm fiber and penetrate deep inside the mm, act as a communication passageway to allow nerve action potentials
sarcoplasmic reticulum a membrane that is formed that covers the external surface of the myofibril as it nears the T-tubule expanded chambers form called TERMINAL CISTERNAE
TERMINAL CISTERNAE storage area for calcium ions
myofilaments microscopic pieces pf protein which allow our mm to contract
Thin filament type of myofilament composed of actin, has TROPOMYOSIN (binding sites) only allows attachment if Ca is present
Thick filament bundle of myosin protein molecules twisted around a titian core, elongated head tail and wide head,
sarcomeres repeating bundles of actin & myosin
Sliding filament model steps involved in mm contraction, mm contraction occurs when the thing filament slides and overlaps the thick filament after 2 criteria are met: ATP is present & action potential from the nervous system is sent
acetylcholine (ACh) neurotransmitter used in skeletal mm contraction, broken down by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at the end of mm movement
motor unit the certain group of fibers w/in a mm that one motor neuron stimulates
mm contraction occurs when: 1-3 1. ACh is released by the motor neuron 2. Ach crosses the synaptic cleft & binds to the receptors on the sarcolemma of the mm cell transmitting the action potential to the cell 3. T-tubles spread the action potential throughout the mm fiber
mm contraction occurs when: 4-7 4. Ca2 is released by the sarcoplasmic reticulum & terminal cisternae 5. Ca2 goes to the thin filament and stimulates troponin 6. troponin removes tropomyosin & exposes binding sites 7. thick filament (myosin) energized by ATP binds
mm contraction occurs when: 8-10 8. thick pulls thin 9. more ATP binds to the myosin head & it detaches from the binding site 10. if ACh, Ca2 & ATP are still present more myosin heads will bind and pull again
twitch a single-stimulus mm contraction-relaxation sequence in a mm fiber
complete tetanus when repeated stimulus of the mm occurs before the relaxation phase begins -occurs in virtually all mm contractions
isotonic contraction mm tension increased and mm length changes, movement of joints are visible
isotonic concentric contraction mm tension (strength) exceeds the resistance and the mm shortens *biceps curl*
isotonic eccentric contraction the mm tension is less than the resistance and the mm lengthens *lowering of the weight during a biceps curl*
isometric contraction mm length does not change during contraction (pushing against a brick wall)
ATP adenosine triphosphate
fast twitch fibers "white meat" packed w/ myofibrils less mitochondria quick & powerful, less endurance
slow twitch fibers "dark meat" better capillary network, more mitochondria, more endurance
Created by: michellerolfs