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chapter 6 muscles

QuestionAnswer
How many characteristics of skeletal muscles are there? 4
Contractility the ability to shorten with force
Excitability the capacity to respond to a stimulus
Extensibility the ability to be stretched
Elasticity ability to recoil to their original resting length
Skeletal muscles is surrounded by what connective tissue? epimysium
What connective tissue is located outside the epimysim? fascia
A muscle is composed of numerous visible bundles called what? muscle fibers
Muscles fibers are surrounded by what loose connective tissue? perimysium
What are the fasciculi composed of? single muscle cells
What are the single muscles cells called? fibers
Each fiber is surrounded by what connective tissue sheath? endomysium
What is each fiber filled with? myofibrils
What 2 major kinds of protein fibers do myofibrils contain? actin & myosin myofilaments
Actin and mosin form ordered units called what? sarcomeres
What is the basic structural and functional unity of the muscle? sarcomere
Each sarcomere extends from what to what? Z line to Z line (disc)
The arrangement of what give banded appearance? actin and myosin
What is on each side of the Z line? I band
What is in the center of each sarcomere? the H zone
What is the brief reversal back to the charge called? action potential
What is the enlarged nerve terminal called? presynaptic terminal
The space between the presynaptic and the muscle cell is called what? synaptic cleft
What is the muscle fiber called? postsynaptic terminal
Each presynaptic terminal contains what? synaptic vesicles
Synaptic vesicles secrete a neurotransmitter called what? acetylcholine
What occurs when synaptic vessels cannot cross over? paralysis
What is a contraction of an entire muscle called? muscle twitch
What is the muscle fiber level called? threshold
When a muscle fiber contracts maximally its called what? all-or-none response
The time between application of a stimulus is called what? lag phase
What is the time of contraction called? contraction phase
When the muscle relaxes its called what? relaxation phase
Where the muscle remains contracted without relaxing tetany
increase in number of motor units is called what? recruitment
What is ATP? adenosine triphosphate
What does ATP produce? mitochondria
What does ATP degenerate? ADP
What do muscle cells constantly produce? ATP
What is anaerobic respiration? without oxygen
What is aerobic respiration? with oxygen
What is oxygen debt? amount of oxygen needed in chemical reactions
When does muscle fatigue occur? when ATP is used during muscle contractions faster than they can be produced
What is isometric? the length of the muscle does not change
What is isotonic? the amount of tension produced by the muscle
What is muscle tone? refers to constant tension produced by muscle of the body for long periods of time
What are fast -twitch fibers? contracts quickly and fatigue quickly?
What is slow- twitch fibers? contract more slowly and are more resistant
What is the origin? the most stationary end of the muscle
What is the insertion? the end of the muscle undergoing the greatest movement
What is the belly? the muscle between the origin and the insertion
Some muscles have multiple what? origins or head
Muscles that work together to accomplish specific movements are called? synergist
Muscles that work against each other are called what? antagonist
The muscle that plays a major role in accomplishing the desired movement is called what? prime mover
The A band extends to the length of what? myosin
The combination of acetylcholine with its receptor causes what? influx of sodium ions into the muscle fiber
What is the breakdown of acetylcholinesterase called? enzymatic breakdown
What does the enzymatic breakdown ensure? the neuron yields only one action potential in the skeletal muscle
Occipitofrontalis raises the eyebrows
Orbicularis oculi closes the eyelids
Orbicularis oris puckers the lips
mastication chewing
zygomaticus smiling muscle
levator labii superioris sneering
depressor anguli oris frowning
buccinator flattens the cheeks
intrinsic tongue muscles change the shape of tongue
extrinsic tongue muscles move the tongue
erector spinae group of muscles on each side of the back
trapezius rotates scapula
pectoralis major adducts and flexes the arm
triceps brachii extends forearm
biceps brachii flexes forearm
brachialis flexes forearm
flexor carpi flexes the wrist
extensor carpi extends the wrist
flexor digitorum flexes the fingers
Created by: tsmith7