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Pharm Ch 1-4

Pharmacology Clear and Simple Chapter 1-4

Synthetic drugs can be created by genetic engineering or by altering animal cells.
Drugs fall into _________ categories of desired effects. Six
Curative cure or treat a problem
Example of curative Penicillin used to treat strep throat
Prophylactic Prevents a problem
Example of prophylactic Vaccinations used to prevent measles, mumps, and rubella or Cefazolin used to prevent infections from surgery
Diagnostic Help diagnose disease or condition
Example of diagnostic Barium Sulfate used for computed tomography scans
Pallative Treat symptoms or make patient more comfortable
Examples of palative Morphine to relieve pain of cancer or oxygen to make breathing more easier
Replacement Replaces a missing substance
Example of replacement Natural thyroid to treat hypothyroidism
Destructive To destroy tumors and/or microbes
Examples of destructive Carbimazole to inhibit production of thyroid hormone to treat hyperthyroidism
Which of the following is the source of lanolin? Animal
Which of the following is the source of potassium chloride? Mineral
Which of the following is the source of digoxin (Lanoxin)? Plant
Which of the following is the source of barbiturates? Synthesis
Which of the following is the souce of leukocytes Human
During which was did the process of mass production of insulin begin? WWII
Genetic engineering is used to make what type of drugs? Synthetic
Prior to synthetic production of medicine, the source of insulin was: Cows and pigs
Toxins are commonly used to treat what aging symptom? Wrinkling of the skin
What drug used in the treatment of menopause is obtained from horses? Premarin
A drug can be administered in one of three ways: 1) enterally 2) paternally 3) precutaneously
Enterally Drug is administered directly into the gastrointestinal system orally, rectally, or through a tube entering this system
Parenterally By intramuscular, intravenous, subcutaneous, or intradermal injection
Percutaneously By inhalation, sublingually (under the tongue), topically, or transdermally
Topical medications is applied: Directly to the skin
Liquid medications act faster than pills because: Pills must first be broken down to be absorbed
Absorption Process by which a substance moves into the bloodstream from the site where drug was administered
Distribution Delivery of the drug to the appropriate site after the drug has been absorbed into the bloodstream
Metabolism medication is gradually "transformed" to a less active or in some instances an inactive form.
What metabolizes drugs? The liver, kidneys, and intestines metabolize drugs
Excretion Ensures waste products are removed and do not build up in the body
A drugs power of strength is called it's: Potency
A drug is called an ________ when it is taken with another drug so the two can work together Antagonist
When drugs are taken seperately Synergism
Adverse reaction Severe side effect such as shock or death
Which means leaving the body? Excretion
Which means moving through a membrane? Absorption
Which means chemical alteration to another substance in the body? Biotransformation
Which means moving of the medication from the site of administration to the target organ? Distibution
Ototoxicity Ears
Nephrotoxicity occurs in the Kidneys
Point at which medication has maximum desired effect: Therapeutic level
Antagonists are taken together to: Work together
Seven rights of drug administation Right patient, right drug, right dose, right time, right route, right technique, right documentation
Three steps to select the right drug: 1) Check label before removing from the shelf 2)Check label before you pour drug out 3) Check label before you put medication back on shelf
Right ear a.d.
Left ear a.s.
Both ears a.u
Right eye o.d
Left eye o.s.
Both eyes o.u
bid twice a day
tid three times a day
qid four times a day
c- with
s- without
PO By mouth (orally)
NPO Nothing by mouth
ID intradermally (into the skin)
IM Intramuscular (into a muscle)
IV intravenous (into a vein)
SC Subcutaneously
Which is a sign of anaphylaxis? Wheezing
a.c. before meal
p.c. after meal
Who oversees safe development of new drugs Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
Schedule I High abuse potential
Example of Schedule I Heroin, LSD, Methaqualone
Schedule II High abuse potential, acceptable medical use
Examples of Schedule II Morphine, PCP, Cocaine, methadone, methamphetamine, ritalin
Schedule III Lower abuse potential acceptable medical use, moderate to low abuse potential
Examples of Schedule III Anabolic steroids, codeine, hydrocodone, and some barbiturates
Schedule IV Low abuse potential, acceptable medical use, limited dependence risk
Examples of Schedule IV Darvon, Valium, Xanax
Schedule V Lower abuse potential than Schedule IV drugs, acceptable medical use, limited physical or psychological dependence compared to schedule IV drugs
Examples of schedule V Cough medicines with codeine
Refills are allowed how often in Schedule III Five times in six months
Symptoms of withdrawal Tremors, emotional distress, hallucinations
Created by: loweunde
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