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Ch.6 Mrs.Eastham

Contractility the ability of skeletal muscle to shorten with force
Excitability the capacity of skeletal muscle to respond to a stimulus.
Extensibility ability to recoil to their original resting length after they have been stretched.
Elasticity ability to recoil to their original resting length after they have been stretched.
Epimysium Each skeletal muscle is surrounded by a connective tissue sheath called the epimysium
fascia connective tissue located outside the epimysium. It surrounds and separates muscles.
Perimysium muscle fiber bundles are surrounded by loose connective
fibers Single muscle cells
Endomysium Each fiber is surrounded by a connective tissue sheath called the endomysium
Myofibrous Fills cytoplasm of each fiber with this thread like structure from one end of the fiber to the other
resting membrane potential charge difference across the membrane
Sacromeres Structural and functional unity of muscles
Resting membrane potential The charge difference across the membrane
Action potentials The brief reversal back of the charge
Motor neurons Nerve cells that carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fibers
Neuromuscular junction Formed by branches on axons in the muscle
Motor unit A single motor neuron and all the skeletal muscle fibers in innervates
Presynaptic terminal Enlarged terminal
Muscle twitch Contraction on an entire muscle in response to a stimulus
Threshold Stimulus level that will make a muscle contract
Lag phase Time between application of stimulus to motor neuron and the beginning of a contraction
Relaxation phase The time the muscle relaxes
Tetany When muscles remain contracted without relaxing
Recruitment Increase of motor units being active
ATP Needed for energy for muscle contraction. Produced in mitochondria. Short lived and unstable
ADP ATP is degenerated in to ADP more stable plus phosphate
Anaerobic respiration Without oxygen
Aerobic reperation With oxygen, more efficient
Oxygen debt The amount of oxygen needed in chemical reactions to convert lactic acid to glucose
Muscle fatigue When ATP is used during contractions faster then it can be preoduced
Isometric The length of the muscle doesn’t change but the ten soon increases
Isotonic The amount of tension is constant but the length of the muscle changes
Muscle tone Constant tension produced by muscles of the body after long periods of time
Fast twitch fibers Contact quickly and fatigue quickly Ex. White meat
Slow twitch fibers Contact more slowly and are more resistant to fatigue. Ex. Dark meat
Origin Head of the muscle. Most stationary
Insertion End of the muscle undergoing the most movement
Belly Portion of muscle between origin and insertion
Synergists Muscles that work together
Antagonist Muscle that work against each other
Prime mover The muscle that plays the major role in synergistic movements
Occipitofrontalis Raises the eyebrows
Orbicularis oculi Closes the eyes and causes wrinkles
Obricularis oris Puckers the lips
Buccinator Flattens the cheeks
Zygomticus Smiling muscles
Levator labii superiors Sneering
Depressor anguli oris Frowning
Mastication Chewing. Includes- 2 pairs of pterygoids, temporalis, and masseter
Intrinsic tongue muscle Change shape of tongue
Extrinsic tongue muscle Move the tongue
Sternocleidomastoid Neck muscle. Rotated and abducts head
Erector spinae Muscles on the back keep the body erect
Thoracic muscles Muscles in the thorax
External intercostal Elevate the ribs during inspiration
Internal instercostals Contract during forced experration
Diaphragm Accomplished quiet breathing
Linea Alba Vertical line from sternum to naval to pubis
Rectus abdomominis On either side linea abla crosses by tendinous inscriptions
Trapezius Rotates scapula
Serratus anterior Pulls scapula anteriorly
Pectoralis major Connects arm to thorax. Adducts and flexes the arm
Latissimus dorsi Attaches humorous to the scapula and clavicle
Triceps brachii Extends forearm
Biceps brachii Flexes forearm
Brachialis Flexes forearm
Brachioradialis Strong band of fibrous connective tissue that covers the flexor and Extensor
Flexor carpi Flexes wrist
Extensor carpi Extends the wrist
Flexor digitorum Flexes the fingers
Extensor digitorum Extends the fingers
Glutenous maximus Buttocks
Gluteus medius Hip muscle
Quadriceps femoris Extends the leg
Sartourius Flexes the thigh
Hamstring Flexes the leg and extends the thigh
Gastrocnemius and soleus Form calf muscles and join to calcneal tendon
Peroneus Turn the door outward
Frontalis Forehead
Trapezius Below neck
Deltoid Shoulders
Pictorials major Chest
Created by: Bb8900



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