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Ch6 Muscle

QuestionAnswer
Contractility the ability of skeletal muscle to shorten with force.
Excitability the capacity of skeletal muscle to respond to a stimulus.
Extensibility the ability to be stretched.
Elasticity ability to recoil to their original resting length after they have been stretched.
Epimysium each skeletal muscle is surrounded by a connective tissue sheath
Fascia another connective tissue located outside the epimysium .it surrounds and separates muscles
perimysium a muscle is composed of numerous visible bundles called muscle fasciculi ,which are surrounded by loose connective tissue
fibers the fascia are composed of single muscle cells
endomysium each fiber is surrounded by a connective tissue sheath
a threadlike structure that extends from one end of the fiber to the other
actin myofilaments thin myofilaments
myosin myofilaments thick myofilaments
sarcomeres actin and myosin filaments form
I band consists of actin
A band extends the length of the myosin
H zone consists only of myosin
M line the myosin myofilaments are anchored in the center of the sarcomere at a dark staining band
resting membrane potential the charge difference across the membrane
action potential the brief reversal back of the charge
motor neurons nerve cells that carry action potentials to the skeletal muscle fibers
axons enter the muscles and branch,each branch that connects to the muscle forms a neuromuscular junction or synapse
motor unit a single motor neuron and all the skeletal muscle fibers it innervates
presynaptic terminal enlarged nerve terminal
synaptic cleft the space between the presynaptic terminal and the muscle cell
postsynaptic terminal the muscle fiber
synaptic vesicles each presynaptic terminal contains
acetylcholine synaptic vesicles secrete a neurotransmitter called
acetylcholinesterase
sliding filament mechanism the sliding of actin myofilaments past myosin myofilaments during contraction
muscle twitch the contraction of an entire muscle in response to a stimulus that causes the action potential in one or more muscle fibers
threshold a muscle fiber will not respond to that stimulus until that stimulus reaches level
all-or-none response this phenomenon is called
lag phase the time between application of a stimulus of a motor neuron and the beginning of the contraction
contraction phase the time of contraction
relaxation phase the time during which the muscle relaxes
tetany where the muscle remains contracted without relaxing
recruitment the increase in number of motor neurons being activated
creatine phosphate when at rest your muscles do not stock ATP but they can store another high-energy molecule
anaerobic without oxygen
aerobic respiration with oxygen
oxygen debt the amount of oxygen needed in chemical reaction to convert lactic acid to glucose and to replenish the depleted stores of creatine phosphate stores in muscle cells
muscle fatigue results when ATP is used during muscle contractions faster than it can be produced in the muscle cells
isometric the length of the muscle does not change, but the amount of tension increases
isotonic the amount of tension produced by the muscle is constant during contraction, but the length of the muscle changes
muscle tone muscle tone refers to constant tension produced by the muscles of the body for long periods of time. Keeps head up and back straight
fast twitch fibers contract quickly and fatigue quickly
slow twitch fibers contract more slowly and are more resistant to fatigue
origin the most stationary end of the muscle
insertion the end of the muscle undergoing the greatest movement
belly the portion of the muscle between the origin and the insertion
synergists muscles that work together to accomplish specific movements
antagonists muscles that work in opposition of one another
prime mover among a group of synergists, if one muscle plays the major role in accomplishing the desired movement its the prime mover
occipitofrontalis raises the eyebrows
orbicularis oculi closes the eyelids and causes "crows feet" wrinkles in the skin at the lateral corners in the eye
orbicularis oris puckers the lips
buccinator flattens the cheeks, trumpeters muscle
zygomaticus smiling muscle
levator labii superioris sneering
depressor anguli oris frowning
mastication chewing
sternocleidomastoid neck muscle
trapezius rotates scapula
serratus anterior pulls scapula anteriorly
pectoralis major adducts and flexes the arm
triceps brachii extends the forearm
brachialis flexes forearm
brachioradialis flexes and supinates the forearm
flexor carpi flexes the wrist
extensor carpi extends the wrist
flexor digitorum flexes the fingers
extensor digitorum extends the fingers
gluteus maximus bottocks
quadriceps extends the leg
gastrocnemius and soleus form the calf msucle
Created by: daniel191