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Chapter 6 muscles

Occipitofrontalis Raises the eyebrows
zygomaticus Smiling muscle
Buccinator Flattens the cheeks
How many pairs of mastication muscles are there? 4 pairs
Intrisic Tongue Muscles Change the shape of the tongue
Levator labii superioris Sneering
Extrinsic tongue muscle Move the tongue
Stermocleidomastoid Lateral neck muscle and prime mover
Erector Spinae Group of muscles on each side of the back
What is the tendinous area of the abdominal wall called? Linea Alba
What crosses the rectus abdominis at three or more locations? Tendinous Inscriptions
What is each side of the linea alba called? Rectus Abdominis
What muscles move the thorax? Thoracic muscles
Trapezius Rotates Scapula
The arm is attached to the thorax by what? Pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi muscles
Latissimus dorsi Medially rotates, adducts, and powerfully extends the arm
What attaches the humerus to the scapula and clavicle Deltoid
Triceps brachii Extends the forearm.
Brachialis Flexes forearm.
Flexor carpi Flexes the wrist
Extensor Digitorum Extends the fingers
How many muscles do the intrinsic hand muscles have? 19 hand muscles
Where are the interossi muscles located? Between the metacarpals
Gluteus maximus Buttocks
Sartorius Flexes the thigh
Quadriceps femoris Extends the leg
Hamstring muscles Posterior thigh muscles
What forms the calf muscle? Gastrocnemius and Soleus
What are the lateral muscles of the leg called? Peroneus
What do the peroneus muscles do? They are primarily everters of the foot, but they also aid in plantar flexion
How many muscles are located in the foot? 20 muscles
What are the 20 muscles in the foot called? Intrinsic foot muscles
What do the foot muscles do? Flex extend, abduct, and adduct the toes
What are the four major functional characteristics? Contractility, excitability, extensibility, and elasticity
Extensibility The ability to be stretched
What do the muscles do? They help to produce heat that is essential for maintenance of normal body temperature
What is each skeletal muscle surrounded by? A connective tissue sheath called epimysium
What is fascia? Connective tissue located outside the epimysium
A muscle is composed of what? Numerous visible bundles called muscle fasciculi
What are fasciculi surrounded by? Loose connective tissue called perimysium
The fasciculi are composed of single muscle cells called what? Fibers
Each fiver is surrounded by what connective tissue? Endomysium
What are the cytoplasm of each fiber filled with? Myofibrils
How many major proteins do Myofibrils consist of? 2
Myofilaments They resemble 2 minute strands of pearls twisted together
Thick myofilaments Myosin myofilaments
Sarcomeres Actin and myosin myofilaments form highly ordered units
What is the basic structural and functional unit of the muscle? Sarcomere
Each sacromere extends to what? From one Z line to another Z line.
Each Z line is an attachment site for what? Actin
The arrangement of actin and myosin give what? A banded appearance
What does the A band do? It extends the length of the myosin
What are the myosin myofilaments anchored by? They are anchored in the center of the sacromere at a dark staining band called the M line.
Resting membrane potential The charge difference across the mebrane
True or false when a muscle cell stimulates do the membrane characteristics change? True
Active potential The brief reversal back of the charge
Motor neurons Nerve cells that carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fibers
A singe motor neuron and all the skeletal muscle fibers it innervates are called what? Motor Unit
Each presynaptic terminal contains what? Synaptic terminal
True or false The A band shortens in length but the H and I bands do not False
What is a threshold? A muscle fiber will not respond to stimulus until that stimulus reaches a level, at which point the muscle fiber will contract maximally
What is a lag phase? The time between application of a stimulus to a motor neuron and the beginning of a contraction
Relaxation phase The time during which the muscle relaxes
Recruitment The increase in number of motor units being activated
What is needed for energy for muscle contraction? ATP
True or false ATP does not produce in the mitochondria False
True or false ATP is short-lived and unstable True
True or false it is necessary for muscle cells to constantly produce ATP True
True or false During periods of activity, the energy stored in creatine phosphate can not be accessed quickly and used to produce ATP False
Anaerobic respiration Without oxygen
What is oxygen debt Is the amount of oxygen needed in chemical reactions to convert lactic acid to glucose and to replenish the depleted stores of creatine phosphate stores in muscle cells
What are the two types of muscle contractions? Isometric and Isotonic
What are the two types of of muscle twitch? Fast-twitch fibers and Slow-twitch fibers
Origin The most stationary end of the muscle
The portion of the muscle between the origin and the insertion Belly
Muscles that work in opposition to one another are called what? Antagonists
Created by: destinycopley13