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Chapter 6 Muscles

muscle cells muscle fibers
contractibility ability of skeletal muscle to shorten with force
excitability capacity of skeletal muscle to respond to a stimulus
extensibility ability to be stretched
elasticity ability to recoil to their original resting length after they have been stretched
when each skeletal muscle is surrounded by a connective tissue sheath epimysium
connective tissue located outside the epimysium and it surrounds and separates muscles fascia
muscle is composed of numerous visible fasciculi
loose connective tissue around muscle perimysium
single muscle cells fibers
Each fiber is surrounded by a connective tissue sheath endomysium
2 types of myofilament actin and myosin myofilaments
thin myofilament actin
thick myofilament myosin
basic structural and functional unit of the muscle sarcomere
z line attaches to actin
i band each side of the z line
a band extends the length of myosin
h zone center of each sarcomere
m line thin line down the h zone
charge difference across the membrane resting membrane potential
brief reversal back of the charge action potential
nerve cells that carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fibers motor neurons
Each branch that connects to the muscle forms a what neuromuscular juntion
A single motor neuron and all the skeletal muscle fibers it innervates motor unit
The enlarged nerve terminal presynaptic terminal
the space between the presynaptic terminal and the muscle cell synaptic cleft
muscle fibers postsynaptic terminal
secrete a neurotransmitter acetycholine
Each presynaptic terminal contains synaptic vesicle
This enzymatic breakdown ensures that one action potential in the neuron yields only one action potential in the skeletal muscle, and only one contraction of the muscle cell acetycholinesterace
Occurs as actin and myosin myofilaments slide past one another causing the sarcomeres to shorten muscle contraction
The sliding of actin myofilaments past myosin myofilaments during contraction sliding filament mechanism
a contraction of an entire muscle in response to a stimulus that causes the action potential in one or more muscle fibers muscle twitch
A muscle fiber will not respond to stimulus until that stimulus reaches a level threshold
when muscle fiber will contract maximally all or none response
The time between application of a stimulus to a motor neuron and the beginning of a contraction lag phase
The time of contraction contraction phase
The time during which the muscle relaxes relaxation phase
where the muscle remains contracted without relaxing tetany
The increase in number of motor units being activated recruitment
atp stands for adenosine triphosphate
produced in the mitochondria and stort lived ATP
When at rest they can’t stockpile ATP but they can store another high-energy molecule creatine phosphate
anaerobic respiration without oxygen
areobic respiration with oxygen
is the amount of oxygen needed in chemical reactions to convert lactic acid to glucose and to replenish the depleted stores of creatine phosphate stores in muscle cells oxygen dept
results when ATP is used during muscle contraction faster than it can be produced in the muscle cells muscle fatigue
2 types of muscle contraction isometric and isotonic
the length of the muscle does not change, but the amount of tension increases during the contraction process isometric
the amount of tension produced by the muscle is constant during contraction, but the length of the muscle changes isotonic
constant tension produced by muscles of the body for long periods of time muscle tone
contract quickly and fatigue quickly fast-twitch fibers
contract more slowly and are more resistant to fatigue slow-twitch fibers
the most stationary end of the muscle origin
the end of the muscle undergoing the greatest movement insertion
the portion of the muscle between the origin and the insertion belly
Muscles that work together to accomplish specific movements synergist
Muscles that work in opposition to one another antagonist
if one muscle plays the major role in accomplishing the desired movement prime mover
occipitofrontalis raises the eyebrows
orbicularis oculi puckers the lips
buccinator flattens the cheeks
zygomaticus smiling muscle
lavetor labii superioris sneering
depressor anguli oris frowning
mastication chewing
sternocleidomastoid lateral neck muscle and prime mover
Created by: fdball2