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Ch. 6 Muscles

QuestionAnswer
points of attachment of each muscle origin and insertion
origin (head) most stationary end of the muscle
insertion end of the muscle undergoing the greatest movement
belly portion of the muscle between the origin and the insertion
synergists muscles that work together to accomplish specific movements
antagonists muscles that work in opposition to one another
prime mover when one muscle plays the major role
what are muscles named by? location, size, orientation of fibers, shape, origin, insertion, and function
occipitofrontalis raises the eyebrows
orbicularis oculi closes the eyelids and causes "crows feet" wrinkles in the skin at the lateral corners of the eye
orbicularis ortis puckers the lips
buccinator flattens the cheeks. trumpeter's muscle
kissing muscles orbicularis oris & buccinator
zygomaticus smiling muscle
levator labii superioris sneering
depressor anguli oris frowning
mastication chewing
intrinsic tongue muscles changes the shape of the tongue
extrinsic tongue muscles moves the tongue
sternocleidomastoid lateral neck muscle & prime mover. rotates and abducts the head
erector spinae group of muscles on each side of the back. Responsible for keeping the back straight and the body erect
contractility the ability of skeletal muscle to shorten with force
excitability the capacity of skeletal muscle to respond to a stimulus
extensibility the ability to be stretched
elasticity ability to recoil to their original length after they have been stretched
epimysium connective tissue sheath that surrounds each skeletal muscle
fascia connective tissue located outside the epimysium
perimysium numerous visible bundles surrounded by loose connective tissue
fibers single muscle cells
endomysium fiber surrounded by a connective tissue sheath
myofibrils a threadlike structure that extends from one end of the fiber to the other
2 major kinds of protein fibers actin & myosin
actin myofilaments thin. they resemble 2 minute strands of pearls twisted together
myosin myofilaments thick. they resemble bundles of minute golf clubs
sarcomeres highly ordered units
basic structural & functional unit of the muscle sarcomere
I band a light area on each side of the Z line consisting of actin
A band darker central region in each sarcomere that extends the length of the myosin
H zone in the center of each sarcomere, another light area, consists of only myosin
M line dark staining band where the myosin myofilaments are anchored
resting membrane potential charge difference across the membrane
acting potential the brief reversal back of the charge
motor neurons nerve cells that carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fibers
synapse
motor unit a single motor neuron and all the skeletal muscle fibers it innervates
presynaptic terminal enlarged nerve terminal
synaptic cleft the space between the presynaptic terminal and the muscle cell
postsynaptic terminal muscle fiber
synaptic vesicles secretes acetylcholine
acetylcholine neurotransmitter
acetylcholinesterase ensures that one action potential in the neuron yields only one action potential in the skeletal muscle
sliding filament mechanism the sliding of actin myofilaments past myosin myofilaments
muscle twitch a contraction of an entire muscle in response to a stimulus that causes the action potential in one or more muscle fibers
threshold when the muscle contracts maximally
all-or-none response
lag phase the time between application of a stimuli to a motor neuron an the beginning of a contraction
contraction phase time of contraction
relaxation phase time during which the muscle relaxes
tetany where the muscle remains contracted without relaxing
recruitment the increase in number of motor units being activated
ATP (adenosine triphosphate) needed for energy for muscle contraction, produced in the mitochondria, is short-lived and unstable
creatine phosphate when at rest they can't stockpile ATP, but they can store another high-energy molecule
anaerobic respiration without oxygen
aerobic respiration with oxygen
oxygen debt the amount of oxygen needed in chemical reactions to convert lactic acid to glucose & to replenish the depleted stores of creatine phosphate stores in muscle cells
ADP
muscle fatigue results when ATP is used during muscle contraction faster than it can be produced in the muscle cells
isometric (equal distance) the length of the muscle does not change, but the amount of tension increases during the contraction process
isotonic (equal tension) the amount of tension produced by the muscle is constant during contraction, but the length of the muscle changes.
muscle tone constant tension produced by muscles of the body for long periods of time
fast-twitch fibers contract quickly and fatigue quickly
slow-twitch fibers contract more slowly and are more resistant to fatigue
origin (head) the most stationary end of the muscle
insertion the end of the muscle undergoing the greatest movement
belly the portion of the muscle between the origin and the insertion
synergists muscles that work together to accomplish specific movements
antagonists muscles that work in opposition to one another
prime mover if one muscle plays the major role in accomplishing the desired movement
occipitofrontalis raises the eyebrows
orbicularis oculi closes the eyelids and causes “crows feet” wrinkles in the skin at the lateral corners of the eye
orbicularis oris puckers the lips (kissing muscle)
buccintaor flattens the cheeks (kissing muscle)
zygomaticus smiling muscle
levator labii superioris sneering
depressor anguli oris frowning
mastication chewing
intrinsic tongue muscles change the shape of the tongue
extrinsic tongue muscles move the tongue
sternocleidomastoid lateral neck muscle & prime mover
erector spinae group of muscles on each side of the back. keeps the back straight & body erect
external intercostals elevate the ribs during inspiration
internal intercostals contract during forced expiration
diaphragm dome-shaped muscle that accomplishes quiet breathing & aids in breathing
trapezius rotates scapula
serratus anterior pulls scapular anteriorly
pectoralis major adducts and flexes the arm
latissimus dorsi medially rotates, adducts, and powerfully extends the arm
deltoid
triceps brachii extends the forearm
biceps brachii flexes the forearm
brachialis flexes forearm
brachioradialis flexes and supinates the forearm
retinaculum strong band of fibrous connective tissue that covers the flexor and extensor tendons and holds them in place around the wrist so that they do not "bowstring" during muscle contraction
flexor carpi flexes the wrist
extensor carpi extends the wrist
flexor digitorium flexes the fingers
extensor digitorium extends the fingers
gluteus maximus buttocks
quadriceps femoris extends the leg
sartorius "tailors muscles"; flexes the thigh
hamstring muscles flexes the leg & extends the thigh
gastrocnemius & soleus form the calf muscle
Created by: cjadkin5