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Chapter 6 Muscles

Contractility The ability to shorten with force
Excitability The ability to respond to stimulus
Extensibility The ability to be stretched
Elasticity The ability to recoil to its original state
Epimysium Surrounds the whole muscle
Fascia The most superficial tissue that separates muscles
Fasicle The numerous visible bundles of muscles
Perimysium Surrounds each fasicle
Muscle Cells Muscle fibers
Endomysium Surrounds each muscle fiber
Shape of the muscle fibers cells Cylindrical cells
Myofibrils The cytoplasm of each fiber
Actin The thin myofilaments that resemble 2 pearl strands twisted together
Myosin The thick myofilaments that resemble bundles of golf clubs
Sarcomeres The highly ordered units from Z-Line to Z-Line
What gives muscles a banded apperance Actin and Myosin
What is the light area of the Z- Line I-Bands
A-Bands The darker area
H-Zone The space between each sarcomere
M-Line The line that goes down the middle of the H-Zone
Motor neurons Nerve cells that carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fibers
Neuromuscluar junction Sends the axons to the muscles and branches
Motor Unit The single motor neuron that innervates skeletal muscles
Presynaptic Terminal The enlarged nerve terminal
Synaptic Cleft The space between the presynaptic terminal and the muscle cell
Postsynaptic Terminal Muscle fibers
Synaptic Vesicles They secrete Acetycholine
Acetycholine It makes the muscle contract
Actycholinestrease It breaks down actycholine and makes the muscle relax
The Sliding Filament Mechanism The sliding of actin and myosin during a contraction
Muscle Twitch A contraction of an entire muscle in response to stimulus to one or more muscle fibers
Threshold A muscle fiber that isn't able to respond to stimulus until that stimulus reaches a certain level
All-or-none response The point of when a muscle contracts maximally
Lag phase The time between the point in which a muscle reacts to stimulus
Contraction phase When the muscle contracts
Relaxation phase When the muscle relaxes
Tetany When a muscle remains contracted without relaxation
Recruitment The increase in number of motor units
ATP Adenosine triphosphate
ADP Adenosine diphosphate plus phosphate
Mitochondria Where ATP is produced
This is short lived and very unstable ATP
Created whenever ATP is stockpiled Creatine Phosphate
Anerobic respiration Doesn't require oxygen
Aerobic respiration Requires oxygen (most beneficial)
Oxygen debt The amount of oxygen needed in chemical reactions to convert lactic acid to glucose
Muscle Fatigue When ATP is used up too quickly and can'r make up for the lost
Isometric The length of the muscle doesn't change but tension does
Isotonic The tension doesn't change but the length does
Muscle tone Constant tension of the muscles in the body for long periods of time
Fast-twitch muscles Contract quickly fatigue quickly
Slow-twitch muscles Contract slower fatigue slower
Origin The most stationary end of the muscle
Insertion The muscle undergoing the most activity
Belly The muscle that is undergoing equal amounts of activity
Synergists Muscles that work together
Antagonists Muscles the work in opposition
Prime mover One muscle plays the major role in the desired movement
Nomenclature The descriptive name of a muscle
Occipitofrontalis Raises the eyebrows
Obicularis Oculi Closes the eyelids and creates crows feet
Obicularis Oris Puckers the lips
Buccinator Flattens the cheeks
Zygomaticus Smiling muscles
Lavator Libii Superioris Sneering
Depressor Anguli Oris Frowning
Mastication Chewing
Muscles used in mastication 2 pairs of pytergoids, temporalis, and massters
Intrinstic Tongue Muscles Changes the shape of the tongue
Extrinstic Tongue Muscles Move the tongue
Sternocleiodmastoid Neck muscles
Erector Spinae The group of muscles on each side of the back
External Intercostals Elevates the ribs during respiration
Internal Intercostals Contracts during forced expiration
Diaphragm Aids in quiet-breathing
Linea Alba Extends to the sternum, through the naval,to the pubis
Rectus Abdominis On each side of the linea alba
Tendinous Inscriptions Crosses the rectus abdominis in 3 or more places
Trapezius Rotates scapula
Serratus Anterior Pulls scapula anterior
Pectoralis Major Adducts and flexes the arm
Latissamus Dorsi Medially rotates, adducts, and powerfully extends the arm
Deltoid Attaches the humerus to the scapula to the clavicle
Triceps Brachii Extends forearm
Biceps Brachii Flexes forearm
Branchialis Flexes forearm
Branchioradalis Flexes and suppinates the forearm
Retinaculum Holds wrists so it does not "bowstring"
Flexor Carpi Flexes wrist
Extensor Carpi Extends wrist
Flexor Digitorum Flexes fingers
Extensor Digitorum Extends fingers
Gluteus Maximus Buttocks
Gluteus Medius Hip muscles
Quadriceps Femoris Extends the leg, (anterior)
Sartorius Flexes the thigh
Hamstrings Extends the thigh, Flexes the leg (posterior thigh)
Gastrocnemius & Soleus Forms the calf muscle
Created by: SoulCatcher777



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