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occipitofrontalis? raises of eyebrows
obricularis oculi? closing of eyelids, and causes, “crows feet”.
orbicularis oris? picked of the lips.
buccinator? flattening of the cheeks
zygomaticus? smiling muscle
levator labii superioris? sneering.
depressor anguli oris? frowning.
mastication? chewing
intrinsic tongue muscles? change the shape of the muscle
extrinsic tongue muscle? moves tongue
sternocleidomastoid? lateral neck muscle, and prime mover
erector spinae? group of muscles on each side of the back
thoracic muscles? muscles that move the thorax
most involved in breathing? external intercostal. internal intercostal. diaphragm. dome.
external intercostal? elevate ribs during inspiration
internal intercostal? contact during forced expirations
diaphragm? accomplishes quiet breathing
dome? shaped muscle, aids in breathing
abdominal wall muscles? they flex and rotate the vertebral column, compress the abdominal cavity, and hold the abdominal viscera.
linea alba? tendinous area in abdominal area, consists of white connective tissue rather than muscle.
rectus abdominis? on each side of the linea alba
trapezius? rotates scapula
serratus anterior? pulls scapula anteriorly
pectoralis major ? adducts and flexes the arm
latissimus dorsi? rotated, adducts, and powerfully extends arm.
Gluteus maximus buttocks
quadriceps femoris extends the leg
satorius flexes the thigh
triceps brachii extends the forearm
biceps brachii flexes the forearm
brachialis flexes forearm
brachioradials flexes and supinates the forearm
retinaculum strong band of fibrous connective tissue that covers the flexor
flexor carpi flexes the wrist
extensor carpi extends the wrist
flexor digitorum flexes the fingers
extensor digitorum extends the fingers
deltoid attaches the humerus to the scapula
hamstring posterior thigh muscles
gastrocnemius and soleus from the calf muscle
calcaneal tendon flex the foot and toes
peroneus lateral muscles of the leg
intrinsic foot 20 muscles located within the foot
contractility skeletal muscles to shorten with force
excitability capacity of skeletal muscles to respond to stimulus
extensibility ability to be stretched
elasticity ability to recoil to their original resting length
epimysium surrounds muscles with connective tissue
fascia connective tissue located outside the epimysium
perimysium A muscle is composed of numerous visible bundles called muscle fasciculi, which are surrounded by loose connective tissue
fibers The fasciculi are composed of single muscle cells
endomysium Each fiber is surrounded by a connective tissue sheath called the
myofibrils The cytoplasm of each fiber is filled
actin myofilaments thin myofilaments. They resemble 2 minute strands of pearls twisted together
myosin myofilaments thick myofilaments. They resemble bundles of minute golf clubs.
sarcomeres which are joined end to end to form the myofibril
the resting membrane potential. The outside of most cell membranes is positively charged compared to the inside of the cell membrane, which is negatively charged. The charge difference across the membrane
action potential. When a muscle cell is stimulated the membrane characteristics change briefly. The brief reversal back of the charge
Motor neurons are nerve cells that carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fibers
neuromusclular junction Axons enter the muscles and branch. Each branch that connects to the muscle forms a
synapse near the center of the cell.
motor unit A single motor neuron and all the skeletal muscle fibers it innervates
presynaptic terminal the muscle fiber
synaptic cleft the space between the presynaptic terminal and the muscle cell
acetylcholine that secrete a neurotransmitter
acetylcholinesterase. The acetylcholine released into the synaptic cleft between the neuron and muscle cell is rapidly broken down by an enzymes
sliding filament mechanism The sliding of actin myofilaments past myosin myofilaments during contraction
Muscle twitch is a contraction of an entire muscle in response to a stimulus that causes the action potential in one or more muscle fibers.
threshold A muscle fiber will not respond to stimulus until that stimulus reaches a level
all-or-none response. The phenomenon
lag phase The time between application of a stimulus to a motor neuron and the beginning of a contraction
contraction phase The time of contraction
relaxation phase The time during which the muscle relaxes
Tetany where the muscle remains contracted without relaxing.
recruitment The increase in number of motor units being activated
Created by: Dallasb10