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Ch 6 Muscles Notes

Muscle terms

The ability of skeletal muscle to shorten with force. Contractility
The capacity of skeletal muscle to respond to a stimulus. Excitability
The ability to be stretched. Extensibility
Ability to recoil to their original resting length after they have been stretched. Elasticity
Skeletal muscle is surrounded by a connective tissue sheath called? Epimysium
Another connective tissue located outside the epimysium. It surrounds and separates muscles. Fascia
Fasciculi are surrounded by loose connective tissue called? Perimysium
Single muscle cells. Fibers
Fiber is surrounded by a connective tissue sheath called? Endomysium
A threadlike structure that extends from one end of the fiber to the other. Myofibrils
Thin myofibrils. Actin myofilaments
Thick myofibrils. Myosin myofilaments
Actin and myosin myofilaments form highly ordered units called? Sarcomeres
The charge difference across the membrane is called? Resting membrane potential
The brief reversal back of the charge is called? Action potential
Nerve cells that carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fibers. Motor neurons
Branch that connects to the muscle near the center of a cell. Neuromuscular junction/synapse
A single motor neuron and all the skeletal muscle fibers it innervates are called? Motor unit
The enlarged nerve terminal. Presynaptic terminal
The space between the presynaptic terminal and the muscle cell. Synaptic cleft
The space between the presynaptic terminal and muscle fibers. Postsynaptic terminal
Each presynaptic terminal contains? Synaptic vesicles
Neurotransmitters secreted by synaptic vesicles. Acetylcholine
The acetylcholine released into the synaptic cleft between the neuron and muscle cell is rapidly broken down by an enzyme is called? Acetylcholinesterase
The sliding of actin myofilaments past myosin myofilaments during contraction is called? Sliding filament mechanism
A contraction of an entire muscle in response to a stimulus that causes the action potential in one or more muscle fibers. Muscle twitch
A muscle fiber will not respond to stimulus until that stimulus reaches a level called? Threshold
The point the muscle fiber will contract maximally. This phenomenon is called? All-or-none response
The time between application of a stimulus to a motor neuron and the beginning of a contraction. Lag phase
The time of contraction. Contraction phase
The time during which the muscle relaxes. Relaxation phase
Where the muscle remains contracted without relaxing. Tetany
The increase in number of motor units being activated is called? Recruitment
Needed for energy for muscle contraction and produced in the mitochondria. ATP
ATP degenerates to the more stable? ADP
Another high-energy molecule. Creatine phosphate
Without oxygen. Anaerobic respiration
With oxygen Aerobic respiration
The amount of oxygen needed in chemical reactions Oxygen debt
When ATP is used during muscle contraction faster than it can be produced in the muscle cells. Muscle fatigue
Adenosine Triphosphate ATP
Adenosine Diphosphate ADP
The length of the muscle does not change, but the amount of tension increases during the contraction process. Isometric
The amount of tension produced by the muscle is constant during contraction, but the length of the muscle changes. Isometric
Constant tension produced by muscles of the body for long periods of time. Muscle tone
Contract quickly and fatigue quickly. Fast-twitch fibers
Contract more slowly and are more resistant to fatigue. Slow-twitch fibers
The most stationary end of the muscle. Origin
The end of the muscle undergoing the greatest movement. Insertion
The portion of the muscle between the origin and the insertion. Belly
Muscles that work together to accomplish specific movements. Synergists
Muscles that work in opposition to one another. Antagonists
If one muscle plays the major role in accomplishing the desired movement. Prime Mover
Raises the eyebrows. Occipitorontalis
Closes the eyelids and causes “crows feet” wrinkles in the skin at the lateral corners of the eye. Orbicularis oculi
Puckers the lips. Orbicularis oris
Flattens the cheeks. Trumpeter’s muscle. Buccinator
Smiling muscles. Zygomaticus
Sneering. Levator labii superioris
Frowning. Depressor anguli oris
Chewing. Has 2 pair of pterygoids, temporalis, and masseter. Mastication.
Change the shape of the tongue. Intrinsic tongue muscles
Move the tongue. Extrinsic tongue muscles
Lateral neck muscle and prime mover. Rotates and abducts the head. Sternocleidomastoid
Group of muscles on each side of the back. Responsible for keeping the back straight and the body erect. Erector spinae
Muscles that move the thorax. Thoracic muscles
Elevate the ribs during inspiration. External intercostals
Contract during forced expiration. Internal intercostals
Accomplishes quiet breathing. Dome-shaped muscle. Aids in breathing. Diaphram
Tendinous area of the abdominal wall that consists of white connective tissue rather than muscle. Linea alba
On each side of the linea alba. Rectus abdominis
Crosses the rectus abdominis at three or more locations, causing the abdominal wall of a well-muscled person to appear segmented. Tendinous inscriptions
Rotates scapula. Trapezius
Pulls scapula anteriorly. Serratus anterior
The arm is attached to the thorax by which two muscles? Pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi muscles
Adducts and flexes the arm. Pectoralis major
Medially rotates, adducts, and powerfully extends the arm. Latissimus dorsi
Attaches the humerus to the scapula and clavicle, and is the major abductor of the upper limb. Deltoid
Extends the forearm. Occupies the posterior compartment of the arm. Triceps brachii
Flexes the forearm. Occupies the anterior compartment of the arm. Biceps brachii
Flexes forearm. Brachialis
Flexes and supinates the forearm. Brachioradialis
Strong band of fibrous connective tissue that covers the flexor and extensor tendons and holds them in place around the wrist. Retinaculum (bracelet)
Flexes the wrist. Flexor carpi
Extends the wrist. Extensor carpi
Flexes the fingers. Flexor digitorum
Extends the fingers. Extensor digitorum
19 hand muscles located within the hand. Intrinsic hand muscles
Located between the metacarpals, are responsible for abduction and adduction of the fingers. Interossi muscles
Buttocks. Gluteus maximus
Extends the leg; anterior thigh muscles. Quadriceps femoris
“Tailors muscle”; flexes the thigh. Sartorius
Posterior thigh muscles; flexes the leg and extends the thigh. Hamstring muscles
Form the calf muscle. They join to form the calcaneal tendon (Achilles tendon). Flex the foot and toes. Gastrocnemius and soleus
The lateral muscles of the leg that are primarily everters of the foot, but they also aid in plantar flexion. Peroneus muscles
20 muscles located within the foot that flex extend, abduct, and adduct the toes. Intrinsic foot muscles
Most muscles have names that are descriptive. What is it called? Nomenclature
Created by: Pandora_Dragon



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