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Muscles

Term
Occipitofrontalis raises the eyebrows
Orbicularis oculi closes the eyelids
Orbicularis oris puckers the lips
Buccinator flattens the cheeks
Orbicularis oris and buccinator the kissing muscles
Zygomaticus smiling muscle
Levator labii superioris sneering
Depressor anguli oris frowning
Mastication chewing
4 pairs of mastication muscles 2 pair of pterygoids, temporalis, and masseter
Intrinsic Tongue Muscles change the shape of the tongue
Extrinsic Tongue Muscles move the tongue
Sternocleidomastoid lateral neck muscle and prime mover
Erector spinae group of muscles on each side of the back
Thoracic Muscles muscles that move the thorax
External intercostals elevate the ribs during inspiration
Internal intercostals contract during forced expiration
Diaphragm accomplishes quiet breathing
Dome-shaped muscle Aids in breathing
Trapezius rotates scapula
Serratus anterior pulls scapula anteriorly
pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi muscles attaches arm to the thorax
Pectoralis major adducts and flexes the arm
Latissimus dorsi medially rotates, adducts, and powerfully extends the arm
Deltoid attaches the humerus to the scapula and clavicle, and is the major abductor of the upper limb
Triceps brachii extends the forearm
Biceps brachii flexes the forearm
Brachialis flexes forearm
Brachioradialis flexes and supinates the forearm
Retinaculum strong band of fibrous connective tissue that covers the flexor and extensor tendons and holds them in place
Flexor carpi flexes the wrist
Extensor carpi extends the wrist
Flexor digitorum flexes the fingers
Extensor digitorum extends the fingers
how many intrinsic hand muscles 19
Gluteus maximus buttocks
Gluteus medius hip muscle and common injection site
Quadriceps femoris extends the leg; anterior thigh muscles
Sartorius flexes the thigh
Hamstring muscles posterior thigh muscles; flexes the leg and extends the thigh
Gastrocnemius and soleus form the calf muscle
calcaneal tendon Flex the foot and toes
peroneus lateral muscles of the leg
intrinsic foot 20 muscles located within the foot
Contractility the ability of skeletal muscle to shorten with force.
Excitability the capacity of skeletal muscle to respond to a stimulus.
Extensibility the ability to be stretched.
Elasticity ability to recoil to their original resting length after they have been stretched.
epimysium Each skeletal muscle is surrounded by a connective tissue sheath
Fascia connective tissue located outside the epimysium
perimysium the sheath of connective tissue surrounding a bundle of muscle fibers
fibers fasciculi are composed of single muscle cells
endomysium connective sheath around a fiber
myofibrils a threadlike structure that extends from one end of the fiber to the other
actin myofilaments thin myofilaments
myosin myofilaments thick myofilaments
sarcomeres units made of actin and myosin, basic structural and functional unit of the muscle.
resting membrane potential The charge difference across the membrane
action potential When a muscle cell is stimulated the membrane characteristics change briefly
Motor neurons nerve cells that carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fibers
neuromusclular junction branch that connects to the muscle
synapse near the center of the cell
motor unit single motor neuron and all the skeletal muscle fibers it innervates
presynaptic terminal enlarged nerve terminal
synaptic cleft space between the presynaptic terminal and the muscle cell
synaptic vesicles secrete a neurotransmitter called acetylcholine
acetylcholinesterase rapidly breaks down acetylcholine released into the synaptic cleft between the neuron and muscle cell
sliding filament mechanism sliding of actin myofilaments past myosin myofilaments during contraction
Muscle twitch contraction of an entire muscle in response to a stimulus that causes the action potential in one or more muscle fibers
threshold muscle fiber will not respond to stimulus until that stimulus reaches this
all-or-none response muscle fiber will contract maximally
lag phase time between application of a stimulus to a motor neuron and the beginning of a contraction
contraction phase time of contraction
relaxation phase time during which the muscle relaxes
Tetany where the muscle remains contracted without relaxing
recruitment increase in number of motor units being activated
ATP (adenosine triphosphate) needed for energy for muscle contraction
where is ATP mitochondria
creatine phosphate store-able high energy molecule
Anaerobic respiration without oxygen. ex: weight lifting
Aerobic respiration with oxygen. ex: running
oxygen debt amount of oxygen needed in chemical reactions to convert lactic acid to glucose
Muscle fatigue when ATP is used during muscle contraction faster than it can be produced in the muscle cells
isometric (equal distance) the length of the muscle does not change, but the amount of tension increases during the contraction process
isotonic (equal tension) the amount of tension produced by the muscle is constant during contraction, but the length of the muscle changes
Muscle tone refers to constant tension produced by muscles of the body for long periods of time
Fast-twitch fibers contract quickly and fatigue quickly
Slow-twitch fibers contract more slowly and are more resistant to fatigue
origin the most stationary end of the muscle
insertion the end of the muscle undergoing the greatest movement
belly the portion of the muscle between the origin and the insertion
synergists muscles that work together to accomplish specific movements
antagonists muscles that work in opposition to one another
prime mover a group of synergists its the muscle that achieves the correct movement
nomenclature muscles named according to their location, size, orientation of fibers, shape, origin, insertion, and function, etc.
Created by: FaithRobertson