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AH 112: Respiratory

Study material for the respiratory system unit--B. Poole

What is respiration? the sequence of events that results in the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the atmosphere and the body cells
What is external respiration? the exchange of gases between the lungs and the blood
What is internal respiration? the exchange of gases between the blood and tissue cells
What is cellular respiration? when the cells use oxygen for their specific activity; also called cellular metabolism
What is another term for breathing? Pulmonary ventilation
What is pulmonary ventilation? the process of air flowing into the lungs during inspiration (breathing in) and out of the lungs during expiration (breathing out)
What is atmospheric pressure? pressure of the air outside the body
What is intra-alveolar pressure? pressure inside the alveoli of the lungs
What is intrapleural pressure? pressure within the pleural cavity
What is a breath? One complete respiratory cycle that consists of one inspiration and one expiration
What are the respiratory conducting passages divided into? Upper respiratory tract and lower respiratory tract
What makes up the upper respiratory tract? nose, pharynx, and larynx
What makes up the lower respiratory tract? trachea, bronchial tree, and lungs
What does the framework of the nose consist of? Bone and cartilage
What is the pharynx commonly called? the throat
What are the three regions of the pharynx? nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx
What is the larynx commonly called? the voice box, or glottis
What is the role of the vocal chords? they close together and vibrate as air expelled from the lungs passes between them
What is the trachea commonly called? the windpipe
What is the trachea's role? It is the airway to the lungs
Where are the bronchi? at the level of the fifth thoracic vertebra, the trachea divides into the right and left primary bronchi. The bronchi branch into smaller and smaller passageways until they end in tiny air sacs called alveoli
Where are the lungs located? In the thoracic cavity
What is the texture of lungs? soft and spongy, because they are mostly air spaces surrounded by the alveolar cells and elastic connective tissue
What separates the lungs from one another? the mediastinum, which contains the heart
Which lung is shorter, broader, and has a greater volume than the other? the right lung
What is used to measure respiratory volumes and capacities? a spirometer
What are the names of the cavities that open into the nasal cavity? frontal, maxillary, ethmoidal, and sphenoidal sinuses
How many lobes does the right lung have? three
How many lobes does the left lung have? two
Created by: LCC