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Chapter 12

Nervous System and Tissue

Afferent Carryingg toward
Efferent (Exit) Carrying Away
Types of Sensory Inputs (Afferent) 1. somatic afferent-in skin, body wall, and limbs 2. visceral afferent- in viscera
Types of Motor Outputs (Efferent) 1. somatic efferent- voluntary motor 2. visceral efferent- involuntary motor
Special Characteristics of Neurons: 1. Extreme Longevity- live long 2. High Metabolic Rate- cant live long with O2 and glucose 3. Do not divide- cant be replaced when damaged
All Neurons do not divide except: neural stems cells in cns
Bundles of Neuronal Processes are called 1. Tracts in CNS 2. Nerves in PNs
Types of Neuronal Processes 1. Dendrites 2. Axons
Neuronal Processes: Dendrites 1. Numerous 2. Contain almost all organelles contained in cell body-soma 3. receptive site for electrical signals from other neuros 4. CONDUCT ELECTRICAL SIGNALS [TOWARD] CELL BODY
Neuronal Processes: Axons 1. Long Axons are called nerve fibers 2. Terminal branches contain boutons that contain neurotransmitters 3. generate impulses at initial segment and carry electrical signals AWAY from cell body
Neurons Classification by Function: Sensory (Afferent) Neuron -almost all are pseudounipolar (with two processes) -do not have dendrites
Pseudounipolar Neurons of Sensory neuron 1. Central Process- carries nerve impulses AWAY from cell-axon 2. Peripheral Process- carries nerve impulses TOWARD cell body- still axon
Neurons Classification by Function: Motor (Efferent Neurons) -carry nerve impulses away from cell CNS to effector organs
Neuron Classification by Function: Interneurons (Association) -acount for 99 percent of neurons -all in CNS
Nervous Tissue: Neuroglia Functions 1.provide supportive scaffolding for neurons 2.Cover nonsynaptic parts of neuron to insulate neuron so no mix up of electrical signals
Nervous Tissue: Neuroglia In CNS 1. Astrocytes 2. Oligodendrocytes 3. microglia 4. Ependymal cells
Neuroglia in CNS: Oligodendrocytes Cell processes wrap around thicker axons in CNS, forming insulating covers called myelin sheaths
Neuroglia in PNS 1. Schwann Cells 2. Satellite Cells -insulate neurons
Neuroglia in PNS: Schwann Cells surround all axons in pns
Neuroglia in PNS: Satellite Cells surround neuronal cell bodies with in ganglia
Myelin Sheath: Functions 1. Protects axons (dont exist on dendrytes) 2. electrically insulate fibers from one another 3. increase speed of neuron transmission (the more the better)
Differences of Myelin Sheath in CNS and PNS 1. In PNS, one schwann cells make up one axon. 2. In CNs, on oligodendrocyte cell makes up multiple axons
Created by: vs604