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Test 3

Determines if the disorder is inflammatory or noninflammatory ESR (Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate)C-reactive protein
detects antibodies present w/ rheumatoid arthritis RF (rheumatoid factor)
evaluates for anemia, infection or inflammation CBC (complete blood count)
may indicate bone tumor & healing fractures Elevated alkaline phosphatase level
may indicate Paget's disease (disease characterized by excessive bone destruction & disorganized repair) & metastatic cancer Elevated acid phosphatase level
May indicate osteomalacia (rickets), osteoporosis & bone tumors Decreased serum calcium
may indicate bone tumor & healing fracture increased serum phosphorus level
may indicate gout elevated serum uric acid level
may indicate lupus erythematosus (connective tissue disorder) elevated antinuclear antibody (ANA) level
most commonly used for knee joint, arthroscope-internal inspection of a joint using arthroscope, need to be NPO, need consent form Arthroscopy
can be done same time as arthoscopy, aspiration of synovial fluid Arthrocentesis
radiographic exam of a joint (shoulder or knee) w/ use of a contrast medium Arthrogram
Estimates bone density: pt w/ osteoporosis. radiography of wrist, hip or spine to determine bone mineral density Bone Densitometry
uses intravenous injection of a radio-nuclide to detect uptake of the radioactive substance by the bone. detects metastatic bone lesions, fractures & certain types of inflammatory disorders Bone Scan
Test electrical potential of the muscle & nerves leading to muscle, done to differentiate muscle & nerve problems: usually done w/ back surgery electromyography
detects levels of uric acid & calcium excretions 24hr urine
aspirated & examined to diagnose disorders such as traumatic arthritis, septic arthritis, gout, rheumatic fever & systemic lupus synovial fluid analysis
Degenerative Joint Disease, most common form of arthritis Osteoarthritis
affected leg must be kept in a position of abduction to prevent dislocation no greater than 45 degrees Replaced Hips
CPM goal of 90 flexion Replaced Knees
Chronic progressive inflammatory disease, systemic disorder of connective tissue & joint Rheumatoid Arthritis
Result is loss of bone mass makes the pt more susceptible to fractures Osteoporosis
measures bone mineral density of the spine & hip DEXA
treated w/ percutaneous vertebroplasty spinal compression fractures
painful metabolic disorder involving an inflammatory reaction in joint, usually affects the feet Gout
Severe dieting or starvation, excessive ingestion of purines, heredity Primary Hyperuricemia
abnormal purine metabolism, increased rate of protein synthesis w/ overproduction or under-excretion of uric acid Secondary Hyperuricemia
scleroderma progressive systemic sclerosis
spasm of the digital arteries w/ blanching & numbness or pain in fingers: red, white, blue Raynaud's Phenomenon
inflammation of the bursa, a fluid filled sac that cushions bone ends to enhance a gliding movement Bursitis
elbow, shoulder, & knee common sites for bursitis
connective tissue disorder, may be autoimmune & has heredity tendencies Ankylosing Spondylitis
Tick bites, Borrelia burgdorferi, results in chronic inflammatory process & multi-system disease Lyme disease
Infection in the bone, formation of new bone around devitalized bone tissue, difficult to treat Osteomyelitis
Autoimmune, antibodies destroy connective tissues, affected structures undergo inflammation, fibrosis, scarring & dysfunction, butterfly lubus erythematosus
kidney failure proteinuria/hematuria
chronic bone disorder characterized by abnormal bone remodeling, affects long bone, spine, pelvis & skull Paget's Disease
deformity of the great toe at its matatarsophalangeal joint hallux valgus/bunions
flexion deformity of the interphalangeal joint & may involve several toes hammer toe
inflammation of a tendon cased by overuse tendonitis
group of symptoms located in the wrist where the carpal bones, carpal tendons & median nerve pass through a narrow, in-elastic canal Carpul Tunnel Syndrome
Tennis elbow, pain that radiates down the dorsal surface of the forearm & a weak grasp Epicondylitis
a cystic mass that develops near tendon sheaths & joints in the wrist ganglion
usually result of misplaced or overgrown clusters of normal bone or cartilage cells that cause the structure to enlarge & impair function Benign Bone Tumors
Primary tumors include osteosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma, chondrosarcoma & fibrosarcoma. most common site is lungs Malignant bone Tumors
pain, tingling, burning or itching phantom limb
breaks fun along a slant to the length of the bone oblique
splintered into fragments comminuted
breaks coils around the bone spiral
incomplete fracture, common in children greenstick
one bone fragment if forcibly wedged against another bone fragment impacted
fracture that remains contained, does not break the skin simple
fracture in which damage also involves the skin or mucus membranes compound
fracture in which bone has been compressed as seen in vertebral compression
pulling away of a fragment of bone by a ligament or tendon & its attachment avulsion
fracture in which fragments are driven inward as seen in skull & facial bone fractures depressed
fracture that occurs through an area of diseased bone, can occur w/out trauma or a fall pathologic
grating sound of bone ends moving over one another crepitus
occurs immediately after a fracture along w/ edema. in 48-72 hours, hematoma forms btwn 2 broken ends of a bone Stage 1
hematoma does not reabsorb. instead other cells enter the clot & granulation tissue forms becoming firm & making a bridge btwn 2 broken ends stage 2
end of first week, granulation tissue turns into callus which is made up from cartilage, osteoblast, calcium & phosphorus stage 3
within 2-3 weeks, woven bone forms, ends of the broken bone begin to knit stage 4
excess bone is naturally chiseled away by stress to the affected part from motion, exercise & weight bearing stage 5
condition in which fat globules are released from the marrow of the broken bone into the blood stream, lodge in capillaries of the lung & obstruct blood flow fat embolism
venous stasis, vessel damage & altered clotting mechanisms may all contribute to the formation of blood clots deep vein thrombosis: Virchow's Triad
once bone cells are deprived of oxygen & nutrients, they die & the cell walls collapse avascular necrosis
improper alignment of the bone ends resulting in external deformity malunion
fractures never heals nonunion
failure of the fracture to heal in the expected time delayed union
fracture of the foot, ankle or distal tibia or fibula short leg cast
fracture of the distal femur, knee or lower leg long leg cast
fractures of the femur, acetabulum or pelvis hip spica cast
fracture of the wrist of hand short arm cast
fracture of the forearm, elbow or humerus long arm cast
exerts a pulling force on a fracture extemity to provide alignment of the broken bone fragments, decreases muscle spasms, aids w/ pain relief traction
provides a strong steady pull & can be used for longer periods of time: gardner-wells, crutchfield, vinke tongs & halo vest skeletal traction
breaks in distal radius, usually when an outstretched hand is used to break a fall colles' fracture
motor vehicle accidents are most common cause in young adults where falls are the most common in older adults, heal w/in 6-8 wks Fracture of Pelvis
sudden and severe chest pain & shortness of breath pulmonary embolism
weakness, slurred speech, & confusion stroke
severe CP, jaw pain, irregular pulse, chest pressure MI
internal or external pressure on the affected area Compartment syndrome
can be caused by bleeding or edema into a compartment internal pressure
can be caused by a cast or tight dressing external pressure
within 4-6 hrs irreversible muscle damage may occur, partial paralysis can occur in 24 hrs, complete paralysis can occur in 24-48 hrs compartment syndrome
process of bringing the ends of the broken bone into proper alignment reduction
nonsurgical realignment of the bone; done w/ traction, angulation, rotation or a combo of these closed reduction
surgical procedure where the bones are realigned, done for commuted fractures or open fractures open reduction
an attempt to attach the fragments of the bone together when the reduction alone is not reasible because of the type & the extent of the break fixation
includes the use of rods, pins, nails, screws, or metal plates to align the bone fragments & keep them in place for healing internal fixation
similar to internal fixation but the pins in the bone are attached to an external frame external fixation
initially cast is hot, then becomes damp & cool plaster of paris
weights must hang freely traction
Created by: 1164667120



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