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Tzefat + Kabbalah

QuestionAnswer
Where was the Ottoman Empire based and where did it spread? It was based in Turkey and spread throughout the middle East
Who ruled Israel before the Ottoman Empire? After? First the Muslims and after the British
What years did the Ottomans rule Israel? From 1516 to 1917
Were the Ottomans Arabs? No, they were Turkish Muslims
Traditionally, how did the Turks treat the Jews? Well
Who were the walls surrounding Jerusalem built by? Suleiman the magnificent
How many Jewish families were in Jerusalem in the early 1400s? 70
Who is known for his commentary on the mishna? Rav Ovadiah Mi Bartenura
Where is Rav Ovadiah from? Where did he move and what did he do there? Bartenura, Italy. He moved it to Jerusalem where he increased the Torah learning
Why was there an influx of Jews in Jerusalem in the late 1400s? What does this increase the population to? In 1492, the Jews were kicked out of Spain and invited to Jerusalem by the Muslims. This increases the population to about 200 Jews
In the early 1500s, how many Jews were there and what Jewish developments were being made? There were 500 Jews in Jerusalem and yeshivot started being built which causes more Jews there
Where is Tzefat located in Jerusalem? Who traveled today are in the late 1400s? What did Tzefat look like 100 years later? It is in the North. Rabbi Yosef Saragossi travel to Tzefat and find a few Jews.100 years later, there were 18 yeshivot and 21 synagogues most of them were Sephardic
Was Rabbi Yosef Saragossi the only Rabbi that helped build up Tzefat? No, there were other rabbis as well
What is Tzefat good at? What does this cause it to become? the land is good at agriculture and becomes a business center, including: olive orchards, raising sheep, and cultivating honey
What happens in Tzefat over the course of 100 years? It grows from 300 families to 10,000 people
Where and when was Rabbi Yaakov BeRav born? When did he die? He was born in Spain in 1474 to 1541
Where did he leave to? When? And why? When he was 18 he left Spain to go to Morocco due to the Spanish expulsion of 1492
Does Rabbi Yaakov BeRav stay in Morocco? Why? No, because the Spanish Inquisition spreads there too
Where does Rabbi Yaakov BeRav go from Morocco? Where does he go from there? After Morocco he goes to Cairo Egypt. He goes from Cairo to Jerusalem
Where does Rabbi Yaakov BeRav travel from Jerusalem? He doesn't stay in Jerusalem and goes to Damascus, Syria. He then goes from Damascus to Tzefat.
What two things does Rabbi Yaakov BeRav do in Tzefat? He becomes the leader of the community and comes up with the idea of reestablishing the Sanhedrin
What two reasons does Rabbi Yaakov BeRav want to re-establish the Sanhedrin? He thinks it is a prerequisite for meshiach and because at the time there were many difficult halachic issues that were coming up and he wanted to resolve them
What did most of the halachic issues have to do with? Muranos and the Spanish Inquisition
What did Rabbi Yaakov BeRav think needed to happen in order to reestablish the sanhedrin? He said they needed to reinstate Semicha
When did semicha end? What did those ppl write? Where does real Semicha go back to? It had ended with the amoraim who wrote the gemara. Real Semicha goes back to moshe but that had been lost
How does Rabbi Yaakov BeRav plan on giving rabbis semicha? He decides that the rabbi of Israel can you give each other Semicha based on the opinion of the rambam
What is the halacha of Sanhedrin? What does Rabbi Yaakov BeRav assume? In Hilchot Sanhedrin it says that if all the rabbis of Israel agree they can give a rabbi Semicha. He assumes everyone agrees with this and gives ten Rabbi Semicha, including Rabbi Yosef Caro
Who was the chief Rabbi of Jerusalem? What does Rabbi Yaakov BeRav tell him? The chief Rabbi of Jerusalem at the time was Rav Levi inn Yaakov Chaviv (Ralbach). Rabbi Yaakov BeRav tells him that he has granted him semicha
How does the Ralbach react? He is upset, refuses to accept the semicha, and disapproves of the whole thing
What is the Ralbach's first reason for disapproving? 1.He thinks that Mashiach has to come first before Sanhedrin.
What is the Ralbach second reason for disapproving? 2. He has issues with the rambams opinion a) rambam says all the rabbis need to agree and Rabbi Yaakov BeRav didn't bother to ask all the rabbi and specifically the ashkanazic rabbis.b) not everybody agrees with the rambam and can't reinstate on 1 opinion
What is the Ralbach's third reason for disapproving? 3. Giving semicha is something new and hasn't been done in the past thousand years so why should it be reinstated now
Was the Sanhedrin reinstated? No, the Ralbach won
Where and where was Rabbi Yosef Caro born? When did he die? What is he otherwise known as? He was born in Spain in 1488 to 1575. He is otherwise known as the Mechaber
How old was he when he left Spain? Why? To where? He was four when he left Spain due to the Spanish expulsion and settles with his family in Turkey
Who does rabbi Yosef Caro learn under in Turkey? Who did he become friends with? What did this person write? First he learns under his father and then becomes friends with a Mekubal named Rabbi Shelomo HaLevi Alkabetz who wrote Lecha Dodi
What is the story of Rabbi Yosef Caro and Rabbi Shelomo HaLevi Alkabetz? One shavuot night, they were learning and eliyahu hanavi comes and tells them to move to Israel so they do
What is another name for the Tur? Who was it written by and what is he therefore known as? Another name for the Tur (pillar) is the Arba'ah Turim. It was written by Rabbi Yaakov ben Asher or the Ba'al HaTurim.
What does rabbi Yosef Caro write a commentary on? What is it called? He writes a commentary on the Tur called The Beit Yosef
How long does it take for a rabbi Yosef Caro to write and revise the Beit Yosef? 20 years to write it in 12 years to revise it
What 2 things was the Tur lacking? How did Rabbi Yosef Caro fix that? It was often lacking sources and omitted the final halacha. so, Rabbi Yosef Caro found the sources and wrote the final halacha- Beit Yosef
How would Rabbi Yosef Caro find the pesak? What were they? He would pick the majority opinion from three sources:Rif, Rambam, and the Rosh
After Rabbi Yosef Karo writes the Beit Yosef why does he decide? What does he do about it? He decides that it is too hard for the average person and creates an abbreviated version
What is rabbi Yosef caro's abbreviated version of the beit Yosef called? What does it include? The Shulchan Aruch (The Set Table). This sefer includes just the halacha
What is the name of the other famous commentary that Rabbi Yosef Caro writes? What is it a commentary on? The Kesef Mishna on the Rambam's Mishna Torah.
What is one thing that Rabbi Yosef Caro studied? Kabbalah. He was a Mekubal.
What is a famous story with Rabbi Yosef Caro? Who was this man said to be? A man came to Tzefat and wanted to change the order of tefilot. The people brought this man so that Rabbi Yosef Caro could judge him but Rabbi Yosef Karo said he couldn't because eliyahu hanavi and Rav Shimon Bar Yochai were with him. He said to be Arizal
What were the three concerns on the Beit Yosef and Shulchan Aruch? 1. Since R' Karo was Sephardic, his halacha is too Sephardic. 2. Ppl will start making halachic mistakes b/c they are paskenim themselves instead of asking a Rav 3. Learning Torah will be too easy if it's laid out for everybody
How are the concerns on Rabbi Yosef Caro's sefarim resolved? Rabbi Moshe Isserlis (Rema) writes an Ashkenazic version which is included in Shulchan Aruch and known as separate by the use of הגה-editors note. There is commentary on Rema known as the Mapa-tablecloth. Rabbi Karos sefarim actually increased learning
What are all the names for the Ari? Ari, Arizal, Ari HaKadosh, and Rav Yitzchak Luria
What does the א in Ari stand for? The זל in Arizal? The א stands for אשכנזי or אמר. The זל stands for Zichrono Levrucha.
When and where was the Ari born? When did he die? He was born in Jerusalem in 1534 to 1572
Where does he go after his father dies? Who does he live with?
Where does the Ari go after his father dies? Who does he live with? He moves with his uncle Mordechai Francis to Cairo who's a rich tax collector
What accomplishment does the Ari have when he was just 15? He wass known as the greatest scholar in all of Egypt
Who does he marry? Where does he move? He married his first cousin, Mordechai francis's daughter. He moves to Tzefat.
Who does the Ari first to learn under? For how long? He learns under Rabbi Betzalel Ashkenazi for 7 years
What did Rabbi Betzalel Ashkenazi write? What is it about? He wrote the Shiyta Mekubetzet which is an encyclopedia of all the Talmudic commentaries up until that time.
How does the Ari learn after rabbi betzalel Ashkenazi? After that? He learns on his own for the next 6 yrs and then the Zohar for the next 7 yrs.
How did the Ari learn when he was on his own? Where? When did he come home. He isolated himself from the rest of the world during the week in a hut his uncle build him by the Nile river. He only came home on Shabbat
What is said about when the Ari reached an intense level of holiness? How did this change him? When he reached an intense level of Holiness, eliyahu hanavi came to him and from then on he wouldn't make any decisions without accepting advice from eliyahu
After learning on his own, who does the Ari want to learn under? When? Where does he go? He wants to learn under Rabbi Moshe Cordovero in his mid thirties, so he moves to Tzefat.
Does the Ari learn under rabbi Moshe Cordovero? What does he become in Tzefat? No, because that same year that he moves to TzefatRabbi Moshe Cordovero dies. So, the Ari becomes the leader of Kabbalah learning in Tzefat.
Where did the Ari go often? Especially when? He went to the mikvah very often, especially during times of prayer
How is the Ari's mikvah viewed today? What is it a segulah for? It is viewed as a holy place and men dunk in there as a segulah for health and bracha
What are the three categories of spirituality that the Ari emphasized? 1. Kedusha- sanctity of the mind an action 2. Kavanah- intense concentration on the meaning of your tefilot 3. Perishut- removing actions from the physical and making them spiritual
What did the Ari believe about each word in tefila? What is the purpose of this? That it creates names of Hashem. The purpose of this is to change Hashem from the attribute of judgement to the attribute of mercy
What is the reordering of the tefilot by the Ari known as? Who is it used by? It is known as Nusach Ari and is used by many chassidic groups.
How did the Ari dress on Shabbat? How old was he when he died and why? He dressed in all white on Shabbat and died young at 38 from an epidemic
Did the Ari write any of his teachings? Who was the most famous one? No, his students did. His most famous student was Rav Chaim Vital.
What does Rav Chaim Vital write? What is it on? He writes the Ari's teachings in a sefer called Etz Chaim.
At the time, what was the effect of learning Kabbalah? How did it become involved in the non-jewish world? Who did this? The effect of learning Kabbalah was people became more focused on tikkun olam and eventually Mashiach. The non-jews were also interested in Kabbalah so they would integrate it into Christian ideas, Johannes Reuchlin did this
What is Rabbi Moshe Cordovero otherwise known as? Who was he? He was called the ReMak and was a kabbalist.
What did the ReMak write? What is the focus of the the sefer? He was a sefer called Pardes Rimonim (The Pomegranate Orchard) The focus of the sefer is on the 10 sefiyrot.
What are the 10 sefiyrot? How do they connect to today? They are the 10 channels of Divine energy and are key ideas to those who learn Kabbalah today
When does Tzefat stop being the center of Torah learning? At the end of the 16th century
Created by: ebab