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AP 1-7 Cum Vocab

AP Human Geography Chapters 1-7 Cumulative Vocab

QuestionAnswer
Fieldwork the study of geographic phenomena by visiting places and observing how people interact with and thereby change those places
Human Geography one of the two major divisions of geography; the spatial analysis of human population, its cultures, activities, and landscapes
Globalization the expansion of economic, political, and cultural processes to the point that they become global in scale and impact. The processes of this transcend state boundaries and have outcomes that vary across places and scales
Physical Geography one of the two major divisions of systematic geography; the spatial analysis of the structure, processes, and location of the Earth's natural phemenona such as climate, soil, plants, animals, and topography
Spatial pertaining to space on the Earth's surface, sometimes used as a synonym for geographic
Spatial Distribution physical location of geographic phenomena across space
Pattern the design of a spatial distribution
Medical Geography the study of health and disease within a geographic context and drom a geographical perspective. Among other things, medical geography looks at sources, diffusion routes, and distribution of diseases
Pandemic an outbreak of a disease that spreads worldwide
Epidemic regional outbreak of a disease
Spatial Perspective observing variations in geographic phemonena across space
Five Themes location, human-environment, region, place, and movement
Location the first theme of geography; the geographical situation of places and things
Location Theory a logical attempt to explain the locational pattern of an economic activity and the manner in which its producing areas are interrelated.
Human-environment the second theme of geography; reciprocal relationship between humans of environment
Region the third theme of geography; an area on the Earth's surface marked by a degree of formal, functional, or perceptual homogeneity of some phenomenon
Place the fourth theme of geography; uniqueness of a location
Sense of Place state of mind derived through the infusion of a place with meaning and emotion by remembering important events that occured in that place or by labeling a place with certain character
Perception of Place belief or "understanding" about a place developed through books, movies, stories or pictures
Movement the fifth theme of geography; the mobility of people, goods and ideas across the surface of the planet
Distance measurment of the physical space between two planes
Accessibility the degree of ease with which it is possible to reach a certain location from other locations. This varies from place to place and can be measured
Connectivity the degree of direct linkage between one particular location and other locations in a transport network
Landscape the overall appearance of an area. Most are comprised of a combination of natural and human-induced influences
Cultural Landscape the visible imprint of human activity and culture on the landscape. The layers of buildings, forms, and artifacts sequentially imprinted on the landscape by the activities of varuious human occupants
Sequent Occupance the notion that successive societies leave their cultural imprints on a place, each contributing to the cumulative cultural landscape
Cartography the art and science of making maps, including data compilation, layout, and design. Also concerned with the interpretation of mapped patterns
Reference Maps maps that show the absolute location of places and geographic features determined by a frame of reference, typically latitude and longitude
Thematic Maps maps that tell stories, typically showing the degree of some attribute or the movement of a geographic phemenon
Absolute Location the position or place of a certain item on the surface of the Earth as expressed in degrees, minutes, and seconds of latitude and longitude
Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite-based system for determining the absolute location of places or geographic features
Geocaching a hunt for a cache, the GPS coordinates which are placed on the internet by other geogcachers
Relative Location the region position or situation of a place relative to the position of other places. Distance, accessability, and connectivity affect relative location
Mental Map image or picture of the way space is organized as determined by an individual's perception, impression, and knowledge of that space
Activity Space the space within which daily activity occurs
Remote Sensing a method of collecting data or information through the use of instruments that are physically distant from the area or object of study
Geographic Information Systems a collection of computer hardware and software that permits spatial data to be collected, recorded, stored, retrieved, manipulated, analyzed, and displayed to the user
Rescale involvement of players at other scales to generate support for a position or an iniative (e.g., use of the Internet to generate interest on a national or global scale for a local position or iniative
Formal Region a type of region marked by a certain degree of homogeneity in one or more phenomena; also called uniform region or homogenous region
Functional Region a region defined by the particular set of activites or interactions that occur within it
Perceptual Region a region that only existsas a conceptualization or an idea and not as physically demarcated entity. ex. US "South" and "Mid-Atlantic" region
Culture the sum total of the knowledge, attitudes, and habitual behavior patterns shared and transmitted by the members of a society. This is anthropologist Ralph Linton's definition; hundreds of others exist
Culture Trait a single element of normal practice in a culture, such as the wearing of a turban
Culture Complex a related set of cultural traits, such as prevailing dress codes and cooking and eating utensils
Cultural Hearth heartland, source area, innovation center; place of origin of a major culture
Independent Invention the term for a trait with many cultural hearths that developed independent of each other
Cultural Diffusion the expansion and adoption of a cultural element, from its place of origin to a wider area
Time-distance Decay the declining degree of acceptance of an idea or innovation with increasing time and distance from its point of origin or source
Cultural Barrier prevailing cultural attitude rendering certain innovations, ideas or practices unacceptable or unadoptable in that particular culture
Expansion Diffusion the spread of an innovation or an idea through a population in an area in such a way that the number of those influenced grows continuously larger, resulting in an expanding area of dissemination
Contagious Diffusion the distance-controlled spreading of an idea, innovation, or some toher item through a local population by contact from person to person-analogous to he communication of a contagious illness
Heirarchial Diffusion form of diffusion in which an idea or innovation spreads by passing first among most connected places or peoples.an urban hierarchy is usually involved,encouraging the leapfrogging of innovations over wide areas,with geog. distance a less impor. influence
Stimulus(aka Stimulation) Diffusion a form of diffusion in which a cultural adaptation is created as a result of the introduction of a cultural trait from another place
Relocation Diffusion sequential diffusion process in which the items being diffused are transmitted by their carrier agents as they evacuate the old areas and relocate to new ones.most common form of relocation diffusion involves spread of innovations by a migrating pop.
Geographic Concept ways of seeing the world spatially that are used by geographers in answering research questions
Environmental Determinism the view that the natural environment has a controlling influence over various aspects of human life, including cultural development. also referred to as environmentalism
Isotherm lines on a map connecting points of equal temperature values
Possibilism geog. viewpoint-response to determinism-that holds that human decesion making,not the environ,is the crucial factor in cult. develop.Nonetheless,possibilists view the environ.as providing set of broad constraints that limits possibilities of human choice
Cultural Ecology the multiple interactions and relationships between a culture and the natural environment
Political Ecology an approach to studying nature-society relations that is concerned with the ways in which environmental issues both reflect, and are the result of, the political and socioeconomic contexts in which they are situated
Population Density a measurment of the number of people per given unit of land
Arithmetic Population Density the population of a country or region expressed as an average unit area. the figure is derived by dividing the population of the areal unit by the number of square kilometers or miles that make up the unit
Physiological Population Density the number of people per unit area of arable land
Population Distribution description of locations on the earth's surface where populations live
Dot Map map where one dot represents a certain number of a phenemenon, such as population
Megalopolis term used to designate large coalescing supercities that are forming in diverse parts of the world
Census a periodic and official count of a country's population
Doubling Time the time required for a population to double in size
Population Explosion the rapid growth of the world's human population during the past century, attended by ever-shorter doubling times and accelerating rates of increase
Natural Increase population growth measured as the excess of live births over deaths. natural increase of a population does not reflect either emigration or immigration
Crude Birth Rate the number of live births yearly per thousand people in a population
Crude Death Rate the number of deaths yearly per thousand people in a population
Demographic Transition multistage model of changes in pop. growth exhibited by countries undergoing indust.high birth&death rates followed by plunging death rates,producing a huge net pop. gain; followed by the convergence of birth rates&death rates at a low overall level
Stationary Population Level the level at which a national population ceases to grow
Population Composition structure of a population in terms of age, sex and other properties such as marital status and education
Population Pyramids visual rep. of age&sex comp. of a pop. whereby the per. of each age group is rep. by a horiz. bar the length of which rep. its rel. to the total pop. males in agegroup=left of center line in each horiz. bar;females in each agegroup=right of center line
Infant Mortality Rate(IMR) a figure that describes the number of babies that die within the first year of their lives in a given population
Child Mortality Rate a figure that describes the number of children that die between the first and fifth years of their lives in a given population
Life Expectancy a figure indicating how long, on average, a person may be expected to live. normally expressed in the context of a particular state.
AIDS immune system disease caused by HIV which over a per. of yrs weakens the capacity if the immune system to fight off infection sothat weight loss&weakness set in&other afflictions such as cancer or pneumonia may hasten an infected person's demise
Chronic(degenerative) Diseases generally long-lasting afflictions now more common because of higher life expectancies
Expansive Population Policies government policies that encourage large families and raise the rate of population growth
Eugenic Population Policies government policies designed to favor one racial sector over others
Restrictive Population Policies government policies designed to reduce the rate of natural increase
Intraregional Migration migration within a country
International Refugees refugees who have crossed one or more international boundaries during their dislocation, searching for asylum in a different country
Intervening Opportunity the presence of nearer opportunity that greatly diminishes the attractivness of sites farther away
International Migration human movement involving movement across international borders
Immigration Laws laws and regulations of a state designed specifically to control immigration into that state
Brain Drain a large emigration of individuals with technical skills or knowledge
Space-time Prism the amount of space you can cover in x amount of time, based on transportation
Counter-urbanization people moving from urban to rural areas
Activity Spaces the space within which daily activity occurs
Cyclic Movements movement that has a closed route and is repeated annually or seasonally
Asylum shelter and protection in one stage for refugees from another state
Chain Migration pattern of migration that develops when migrants move along and through kinship links
Colonization physical process whereby the colonizer takes over another place, putting its own government in charge and either moving its own people into the place or bringing in indentured outsiders to gain control of the people and the land
Distance Decay the effect of distance on interaction, generally the greater the distance the less the interaction
Explorers a person examining a region that is unknown to them
Forced Migration human migration flows in which the movers have no choice but to relocate
Gravity Model a mathematical prediction of the interaction of places, the general interaction being a function of population size of the respective places and the distance between them
Guest Workers legal immigrant who has a work visa, usually short term
Immigration Wave phemenon whereby different patterns of chain migration build upon one another to create a swell in migration from one origin to the same destination
Internal Migration human movement within a nation-state, such as ongoing westwars & southward movements in the US
Internal Refugees people who have been displaces within their own countries and do not cross international borders as they flee
Kinship links types of push factors or pull factors that influence a migrants decision to go where family or friends have already found success
Laws of Migration developed by British demographer Ernst Ravenstetin, five laws that predict the flow of immigrants
Migrant Labor a common type of periodic movement involving millions of workers in the US and tens of millions of workers worldwide who cross international borders in search of employment and become immigrants, in many instances
Migration a change in residence intended to be permenant
Military Service another common form of periodic movement involving as many as ten million US citizens in a given year, including military personnel and their families, who are moved to new locations where they will spend tours of duty lasting up to several years
Nomadism movement among a definite set of places- often cyclic movement
Periodic Movements movement that involves temporary, recurrent relocation
Pull Factors positive conditions and perceptions that effectively attract people to new locales from other areas
Push Factors negative conditions and perceptions that induce people to leave their abode and migrate to a new locale
Selective Immigration process to control immigration in which individuals with certain backrounds are barred from immigrating
Step Migration migration to a distant destination that occurs in stages
Transhumance a seasonal periodic movement of pastoralists and their livestock between highland and lowland pastures
Voluntary Migration movement in which people relocate in response to percieved opprtunity, not because they are forced to move
Rust Belt "manufacturing belt" Northeast US, mid-atlantic, & portions of upper midwest. Economy was defined by steel industry or other heavy manufacturing
Remittances money migrants send back to family and friends in their home countries, often in cash, forming an important part of the economy in many poorer countries
Refugees people who have fled their country because of political persecution and seek asylum in another country
Quotas established limits by governments on the number of immirants who can enter a country each year
Islands of Development place built up by a government or corporation to attract foreign investment and which has relativley high concentrations of paying jobs and infrastructure
Migration Selectivity basically when a country decides who they want to let immigrate in, and who they block from entering
Glocalization the process by which people in a local place meditate and alter regional, national, and global processes
Global-local Continuum the notion that what happens at the global scale has a direct effect on what happens at a local scale and vica versa. This idea posits that the world is comprised of an interconnected series of relationships that extend across space
Folk-housing Regions a region in which the housing stock predominatly reflects styles of building that are particular to the culture of the people who have long inhabited the area
Ethnic Neighborhood neighborhood, typically situated in a larger metropolis city and constructed by or comprised of a local culture, in which a local culture can practice its customs
Distance Decay the effects of distance on interaction generally the greater the distance the less the interaction
Diffusion Routes the spatial trajectory through which cultural traits or other phenomena spread
Custom practice routinely followed by a group of people
Culture the sum total of the knowledge, attitudes, and habitual behavior patterns shared and transmitted by the members of a society. This is anthropologist Ralph Linton's definition; hundreds of other definitions exist
Commodification the process through which something is given monetary value. It occurs when a good or idea that previously was not regarded as an object to be bought and sold is turned into something that has a particular price and that can be traded in a market economy
Authenticity in the context of local cultures or customs, the accuracy with which a single sterertypical or typeast image or experience conveys an otherwise dynamic and complex local culture or its customs
Cultural Appropriation the process by which cultures adopt customs and knowledge from other cultures and use them for their own benefit
Assimilation the process through which people lose originally differentiating traits, such as dress, speech peculiarities or mannerisms, when they come into contact with another society or culture. Often used to describe immigrant adaptation to new places of residence
Hearth the area where an idea or cultural trait originates
Heirarchial Diffusion a form of diffusion in which am idea or innovation spreads by passing first among the most connected places or peoples
Nonmaterial Culture the beliefs, practices, aesthics, and values of a group of people
Material Culture the art, housing, clothing, sports, dances, foods, and other similar items constructed or created by a group of people
Local Culture group of people in a particular place who see themselves as a collective or a community who share experiences, customs, and traits, who work to preserve those traits and customs in order to claim uniqueness and to distinguish themselves from others
Folk Culture cultural traits such as fress modes, dwellings, traditions, and institutions of usually small, traditional communities
Popular Culture cultural traits such as dress, diet, and music that identify and are part of today's changeable, urban-based, media-influenced western societies
Time-space Compression a term associated with the work of David Harvey that refers to the social and psychological effects on living in a world in which time-space convergence has rapidly reached a high level of intensity
Neolocalism the seeking out of the regional culture and reinvigoration of it in response to the uncertainty of the modern world
Placelessness defined by geographer Edward Relph as the loss of uniqueness of place in the cultural landscape so that one place looks like the next
Reterritorilization with respet to popular culture, when people within a place start to produce an aspect of popular culture themselves, doing so in the context of their local culture and making it their own
Cultural Landscape the visible imprint of human activity and culture on the landscape. The layers of buildings, forms, and artifacts sequentially imprinted on the landscape by the activities of various human occupants
Deep Reconstruction technique using the vocabulary of an extinct language to re-create the language that proceed the extinct language
Culture the sum total of the knowledge, attitudes, and habitual behavior and patterns shared and transmitted by the members of a society
Creole language a language that began as a pidgin language but was later adopted as the mother tongue by a people in place of the mother tongue
Conquest theory one major theory of how proto-indo-european diffused into Europe which holds that the early speakers of proto-indo-european spread westward on horseback, overpowering earlier inhabitants, beginning the diffusion and differentiation of indo-euro tongues
Backward reconstruction the tracking of sound shifts and hardening of consonants "backward" toward the original language
Subfamilies divisions within a language family where the commonalities are more definite and the origin is more recent
Renfrew hypothesis Written by Cain Renfrew;3 areas in and near the 1st agricultural hearth(fertile crescent)gave rise to three long families: Europe's Indo-Euro languages;North African and Arabian languages;the languages in present-day Iran, Afganistan, Pakistan, & India
Proto-Indo-European linguistic hypothesis proposing the existence of an ancestral Indo-Euro lang. that is the hearth of the ancient Latin,Greek,&Sanskrit lang. which hearth would link modern language from Scandinavia to N. Africa&from N. America through part of Asia to Aust.
Place uniqueness of a location
Slavic language lnaguages that developed as Slavic people migrated from a base in present-day Ukraine close to 2000 years ago
Romance language languages that lie in areas that were once controlled by the Roman Empire but were not subsequently overwhelmed
Sound Shift slight change in a word across languages within a sub-family or through a language family from the present backward toward its origin
Toponym place name
Language families group of languages with a shared but fairly distinct origin
Dialects variants of a standard language along regional or ethnic lines. Differences in vocabulary, syntax(the way words are put together to form phrases), pronunciation, cadence, & pace of speech all mark a speaker's dialect
Isogloss a geographic boundary within which a particular linguistic feature occurs through such a boundary; is rarely a simply line
Standard language a langauge that is published, widely distributed, & purposefully thought
Language a set of sounds, combination of sounds, & symbols that are used for communication
Official language in multilingual countries the language selected, often by the educated & politically powerdul elite, to promote internal cohesion; usually the language of courts & government
Nostratic language believed to be the ancestral language not only of Proto-Indo-Euro, but also of the Kartrelian language fo the southern Caucasus region, the Uralic-Altaic language, the Pravadian language of India, & the Afro-Asiatic language family
Mutual Intelligibility the ability of two people to understand each other when speaking
Multilingual State countries in which more than one language is spoken
Monolingual State countries in which one language only is spoken
Pidgin language when parts of two or more languages are combined in a simplified structure and vocabulary
Lingua franca a term deriving from"frankish language" &applying to a tongue spoken in ancient medit. ports that consisted of a mixture of Italian,French,Greek,Span.,&even some Arabic.Today it refers to a"common language" purpose of trade & commerce
Language divergence process suggested by Schleicher where by new languages are formed when a lang. breaks into dialects due to a lack of spatial inter. among speakers of the lang.&continued isolation eventually causes the division of the lang. into discrete new languages
Language convergence the collapsing of 2 languages into one resulting from the consistent spatial interaction of peoples with different languages; the opposite of language divergence
Global language the language used most commonly around the world; defined on the basis of either the number of speakers of the language or prevalence of use in commerce & trade
Germanic language languages that reflect the expansion of peoples out of Northern Europe to the West and South
Extinct language language without any native speakers
Dispersal hypothesis hypothesis which holds that the Indo-Euro languages that arose from Prot-Indo-Euro were first carried eastward into Southwest Asia, next around the Caspian sea, & then across the Russian-Ukrainian plains & onto the Balkans
Dialect chains a set of contiguous dialects in which the dialects nearest to each other at any place in the chain are most closley related
Accent prominence of a syllable in terms of differential loudness, or of pitch, or length, or of a combination of these.
Acculturation the process of adopting the cultural traits or social patterns of another group.
Apartheid (in the Republic of South Africa) a rigid policy of segregation of the nonwhite population.
Barrioization increase in Hispanic population in a given neighborhood
Behaviors
Clustered