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AP2/ Exam 5 Final

Chapter End

How does sperm move from the epididymis to the external meatus/out of the body? epididymis moves the sperm, vas deferens stores and carries sperm out of the scrotal sac which is then let out through the urethra and leaves the body
What is the primary function of the uterus? receive, retain, and nourish a fertilized ovum
What is Fetal circulation 1 way blood bypass nonaerated lungs way of the foramen ovale-obv circulatory diff btw fetus + neonate is the umbilical arteries + umbilical vein, tk bl to/from the placenta- incl few shunts : 3 shunts: ductus venosus, foramen oval, ductus arteriosus
If a gamate has a diploid number of chromosomes, how many chromosomes will it contain?(not just a simple answer) 46 chromosomes, 23 from each sperm and egg
After ovulation what part of the female internal reproduction receives the egg? the egg moves along the fallopian tube, disintegrates and is absorbed back into the body
What is the function of the vagina organ of female copulation passageway for discharge of menstruation passageway for the birth of the fetus
What is the function of the urethra is a tube responsible for allowing urine to leave the body as it empties from the bladder and semen
The male reproductive system The external structures of the male reproductive system are the penis, the scrotum and the testicles 3 parts or the penis: the root, which attaches to the wall of the abdomen; the body, or shaft; and the glans, which is the cone- shaped end
The female reproductive system ovaries, oviducts, and the uterus, vagina, + external genital structures. Internal -uterus, vagina, + ovaries located w/in ovaries, oviducts, + uterus, vagina, + external genital structures. Internal -uterus, vagina, + ovaries located w/in ligaments
What is the blood testis barrier is formed between Sertoli cells of the seminiferous tubule and as such isolates the further developed stages of germ cells from the blood
What process maintains the chromosomal number of gamates Meiosis
Process of spermatogenesis four mature sperm are produced from the parent cell
Process of oogenesis one mature ovum is produced
What tissue releases the ovulating eggs this event occurs when the de Graaf's follicles rupture and release the secondary oocyte ovarian cells.
what part of the testes is responsible for production of sperm seminiferous tubules
What part of the testes is responsible for testosterone production most from the testicles and some from the adrenal glands Leydig cells or interstitial cells produce testosterone in the presence of LH
What is the proliferative stage of the menstrual cycle a new layer of endometrium is formed becoming thickened and vascularized follicles inside the ovaries develop and mature in preparation for ovulation
If a person has abnormal testes, how does that affect the production of sperm? it can decrease the production of sperm called oligospermia a complete absence of sperm called azoospermia
What are the characteristics of sperm including chromosomal makeup of sperm sperm cells have 23 chromosomescontains a head/haploid nucleus, midpiece/mitochondria produces energy, and a tail/ flagella for mobility
Dizygotic twins who developed from 2 different fertilized eggs Fraternal
Identical twins who develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in 2
Spike in estrogen/progesterone/LH/FSH WHAT IS HAPPENING? and what is happening when those hormones are normal? -spike in estrogen can result in heavy bleeding, endometriosis, and even infertility -spike in progesterone can cause a person to feel lethargic -When the hormones are normal then certain sexual and reproductive functions are properly working
Ovulation is the release of an egg from the ovaries
Corpus Lutem hormone secreting structure that develops in an ovary after an ovum has been discharged but degenerates after a few days unless pregnancy has begun
What is prostate cancer? sometimes a slow-growing cancer that may never represent a threat to the patient
If a male has a low concentration of LH hormone, how would he be affected? LH is critical for sperm and testosterone production, so a low of LH would decrease sperm and testosterone levels.
STD Sexually transmitted disease- an infection transmitted through sexual contact, caused by bacteria, viruses, or parasites
How does STD affect the reproductive system in males and females Syphillis is caused by a virus that may lead to death if untreated Gonorrhea is caused by a bacteria that can bring on very painful discharges Chlamydia is caused by bacteria that can bring on a wide variety of nonfatal but uncomfortable symptoms.
What is polyspermy and does it lead to life? describes an egg that has been fertilized by more than one sperm -a cell resulting from polyspermy, on the other hand, contains three or more copies of each chromosome—one from the egg and one each from multiple sperm. results in inviable zygote
Functions of trophoblast a layer of tissue on the outside of a mammalian blastula, supplying the embryo with nourishment and later forming the major part of the placenta.
What hormone is responsible for "milk let down" oxytocin
Functions of the umbilical cord and placenta -the umbilical cord carries substance to and from the fetus and connects the embryo to the placenta -the placenta provides respiration, nutrition, excretion, protection, storage and hormone production
Relaxin hormone? Functions in regards to menstrual cycle and pregnancy -hormone that prevents contraction until the birth process -relaxin levels in the circulation rise after ovulation, during the second half of the mentsrual cycle -also inhibits contractions in the wall of the uterus, helps soften and lengthen the cervix
Prone Aces and actions affect fertilization of the egg
Three germ layers of the embryo( what tissues) ectoderm include epithelium of the pineal and pituitary gland mesoderm include endothelium of blood and lymph vessels endoderm include epithelium of the respiratory tract 3 germ layers, the mesoderm forms the most body parts
What hormone maintains the corpus lutem progesterone
Which one of these is an unlikely method of producing a child? A. Gamates intra-filopian transfer b. Invetrofertilition C. Embryo transfer D. Ectopic implantation Ectopic implantation
What type of blood is carried by your umbilical arteries carry deoxygenated blood, nutrient depleted blood from the fetus to the placenta
What is cleavage/pre-embryco structures during cleavage? (What's 1st,2nd,3rd) Transformation of the diploid zygote into a mass of cells occurs through a rapid series of cell divisions 1- Morula-solid ball of cells 2-Early blastocyst-hollow ball of cells 3- late blastocyst- 2 layers -embryonic disc 4-gastrula -3 germ layers
During APGAR, what systems are evaluated and which are not tested - heart rate - respiratory effort - muscle tone - reflex irritability - color test that is not tested is
Embryo is implanted in the endometrium, no placenta nor umbilical cord, how does get nutrients? implantation is the stage at which the embryo adheres to the wall of the uterus. At this stage of prenatal development, the conceptus is called a blastocyst. It is by this adhesion that the embryo receives oxygen and nutrients from the mother
What may cause the onset of labor? begins when the uterine contractions become regular + cause a progressive dilatation of the cervix + descent through the pelvis. dilatation commencing the membranes around the inside of cervix separate from their attachment and slight bleeding occurs
What is the decidia basalis The area of endometrium between the implanted chorionic vesicle and the myometrium, which becomes the maternal part of the placenta
Punnett square Used for blood typing to predict a child's possible genotypes based on the blood types of his parents
Homozygous carries 2 identical alleles for a trait
Heterozygous having 2 different alleles for a trait
What is incomplete dominance heterozygote has a phenotype intermediate between that of homozygous-dominant/recessive indivudals
Genotypic ratio describes the number of times a genotype would appear in the offspring after a test cross. For example, a test cross between two organisms with same genotype, Rr, for a heterozygous dominant trait will result in offspring with genotypes: RR, Rr, and rr
What is Hemoglobin an iron containing respiratory protein that binds oxygen in red blood cells red protein responsible for transporting oxygen in the blood
What hormone comes from adrenal hypothesis steroids aldosterone and cortisol????
EKG an electrocardiogram is a graphic representation of the heart rhythm/electrical activity
What is the effect of sympathetic Neurotransmitter of the heart sympathetic stimulation on the SA node is to increase its rate of slow drift to threshold so that depolarization to threshold becomes more rapid. Once again, the neurotransmitter released by sympathetic fibers innervating the heart is norepinephrine.
How do Leukocyte move through circulatory system? by amoeboid motion-is a crawling or oozing movement used by certain cells and unicellular organisms that are amorphous, or without a fixed shape, and so can change the shape of their bodies
What leukocyte is the most prominent and is phagocytic neutrophils and monocytes
What is the foreman ovale is a hole in the atrial septum during fetal life that allows the blood to skip the lungs and go straight through to the aorta and becomes the fossa ovalis in adults
What is the common leukocyte found in an area of infection Monocytes
What are interferons and their function? groups of proteins and primary role is inhibiting viral infections and in stimulating the entire immune system to fight disease
What are the functions of B cells? -to make antibodies against antigens -perform the role of antigen presenting cells -develop into memory cells a
What are regulatory T cells? regulate the activity of other cells via cytokines and cell contact mechanisms
What is the innate immune system? 1st line of defense, one which that component of immune system is designed to respond immediately has the ability to communicate with the adaptive immune system
How are the egg and sperm similar? a sperm cell is a reproductive cell of males while egg cells are of females. Both egg cells and sperm cells depend on each other for the reproduction of a human life. Both egg cells and sperm cells undergo meiosis.
What is responsible for milk ejection the hormone prolactin and is secreted by the anterior pituitary
What is the function of the urinary system maintains proper balance of water, salts, and acids in the body fluids by removing excess fluids from the body or reabsorbing water as needed constantly fliters the blood to remove waste converts waste and excess fluids to urine
What causes or triggers the initiation of urination (micturition) Stretching of the bladder wall
What is the function of the stomach -storage of food we eat -breaking down the food into a liquid mixture called chyme -mixing enzymes which are chemicals that break down food -slowly empties that liquid mixture into small intestine
What is chyme partially digested food mixed with stomach acids
What is the composition of saliva and what type of cells are salivary glands made of Saliva is composed of 99.5% water and a mixture of solutes. Saliva is formed as water and electrolytes that are filtered from plasma and capillaries then through cells of the salivary glands-made up of Serous cells, Mucous cells, and Myoepithelial cells
How many teeth do adults have 32 permanent teeth
How many teeth do children have 20 deciduous teeth, means falling off
What is the sequence for the formation of the drop of urine Nephron collecting duct minor calyx major calyx ureter to urethra
What is the function of hepatocytes -responsible for protein synthesis and storage -produce + store a wide range of proteins for use by the body they metabolize carbohydrates and lipids ingested by the body -make and secrete bile.
What role does CO2 play in respiration During cellular respiration, CO2 is released to the atmosphere during the formation of acetyl coenzyme A. This step involves the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvic acid, the result of which is carbon dioxide
What hormone increases blood sugar levels glucagon stimulates liver to break down glycogen into glucose
How is CO2 transported in the blood is transported in the blood from the tissue to the lungs in three ways, 1-dissolved in solution 2- buffered with water as carbonic acid 3-bound to proteins, particularly hemoglobin.
What is LH? Luteinizing hormone produced by the pituitary gland -in females this acts on the ovary to stimulate production of estrogens and induce ovulation -in males this acts on the testes to stimulate the production of testosterone
What is the function of oxytocin acts on organs in the body (including the breast and uterus) and as a chemical messenger in the brain, controlling key aspects of the reproductive system, including childbirth and lactation, and aspects of human behavior
What hormones are secreted by the anterior pituitary gland? (GH)Growth Hormone (TSH)Thyroid stimulating hormone (ACTH)Adrenocorticotropic hormone (LH)luteinizing hormone (FSH)follicle stimulating hormone prolactin
What is the cause of type II Diabetes? linked to genetics, caused by either when the body does not produce enough insulin or when the body is unable to effectively use the insulin that is being produced
Where are respiratory centers located in the brain? bilaterally on the medulla and the pons in the reticular formation of the medulla oblongata
What tissue maintains the openness or patency of the trachea? cartilage rings
What is the most powerful stimulus for respiration? increase of carbon dioxide levels
The volume of a person's voice depends on the ________. A) thickness of vestibular folds B) length of the vocal folds C) strength of the intrinsic laryngeal muscles D) force with which air rushes across the vocal folds D) force with which air rushes across the vocal folds
What is the dental formula for the development of teeth and what does it mean I- Incisors-2 C-Canines-1 P-Premolars-2 M-Molars-3 The dental formula refers to the number and types of teeth a human has
Conduction system and cardiac of the heart is _________ group of specialized cardiac muscle cells in the walls of the heart that send signals to the heart muscle causing it to contract. Main components of cardiac conduction system are the SA node, AV node, bundle of His, bundle branches, and Purkinje fibers.
What are parietal cells in the stomach and what's the function -one of the main exocrine secretory cells are the epithelial cells that secrete HCL and intrinsic factor -located in the the gastric glands found in the lining of fundus and stomach
What is the P wave in a EKG represent represents atrial depolarization atria contracting and pumping blood into the ventricles
What is ischemia in relationship to the heart occurs when blood flow to your heart is reduced, preventing it from receiving enough oxygen and can damage your heart muscle
Intrinsic factor is necessary for the absorption of what vitamin B vitamin-Niacin
Why might the myocardium be thicker on the left than the right of the heart The left ventricle pumps blood to most of the body and needs more muscle tissue
What are the small structures associated with the lymphatic system called lymphatic vessels
When is the thymus gland most active? during childhood/adolescence
What is the function of lymphocytes? are wbc that are responsible for initiating an immune response when a foreign invader enters the body located in the tonsils, lymph nodes, and the spleen, and also circulate in the blood
What structure in the intestinal tract is associated with the lymphatic system? Gut-GALT/works in the immune system to protect the body from invasion in the gut, physiological function in food absorption
What is the most hazardous time of the day for heart attacks to occur? morning time
phenotypic ratio identifying the frequency of a trait or trait combinations that will be expressed based on the genotypes of the offspring.
What is dartos muscle? -is composed of smooth muscle fibers - is found beneath the skin of the scrotum and outside of the membrane surrounding the testicles
What is cremaster muscle? the muscle of the spermatic cord, by which the testicle can be partially raised
The dartos and cremaster muscles are important to the integrity of the male reproductive system. Which of the following is true about the role they play? They regulate the temperature of the testes
The most important risk for testicular cancer in young males is ________. failure of the testis to make their normal decent
How do the testes respond to exposure to excessive body warmth? They move away from the pelvic cavity
The cells that produce testosterone in the testis are called ________. interstitial endocrine cells
The ability of sperm cells to move along the ductus deferens is due to ________. peristaltic contractions
The duct system of the male reproductive system does not include the ________. corpus spongiosum
Which of the following glands are responsible for about 70% of the volume of semen? the seminal glands
Why doesn't semen enter the urinary bladder during ejaculation? The smooth muscle sphincter at the base of the urinary bladder closes
If gametes were diploid like somatic cells, how many chromosomes would the zygote contain? twice the diploid number, and with every succeeding generation, the chromosome number would continue to double and normal development could not occur
Which of the choices below is not a function of testosterone? stimulates mammary gland development
Which male hormone inhibits the secretion of FSH? inhibin
Which of the choices below is not a part of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis? thalamus
Select the correct statement about testosterone control. GnRH from the hypothalamus causes FSH and LH release from the anterior pituitary.
A boy who has not passed through puberty sustains an injury to his anterior pituitary such that FSH is no longer released, but LH is normal. After he grows to maturity, one would expect that he would ________. be sterile
A low secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) in the normal male adult would cause ________. decreased testosterone secretion
Which of the following hormones stimulates the release of anterior pituitary gonadotropins? GnRH
All but one of the following statements is true of uterine function. Select the statement that is not true of uterine function. The narrow portion of the uterus near the cervix is the most typical site of fertilization.
The structures that receive the ovulated oocyte, providing a site for fertilization, are called the ________. uterine tubes
Which of the choices below is not a function of the vagina? serves as a passageway for the primary oocyte
Which of the following is a correct statement about uterine tubes? The infundibulum is the funnel-shaped region near the ovary
Which of the following female structures is homologous to the male scrotum? labia majora
Which of the following statements is true concerning the mammary glands of both males and females? The mammary glands are modified sweat glands that are actually part of the integumentary system.
The basic difference between spermatogenesis and oogenesis is that ________. in oogenesis, one mature ovum is produced, and in spermatogenesis four mature sperm are produced from the parent cell
Occasionally three polar bodies are found clinging to the mature ovum. One came from an unequal division of the ovum, but from where did the other two arise? The first polar body has also divided to produce two polar bodies
In humans, separation of the cells at the two-cell state following fertilization may lead to the production of twins, which in this case would be ________. genetically identical
The oral contraceptive pill, informally called "the pill" contains an estrogen and progesterone or a synthetic mimic of this hormone. The combination of these two hormones taken in the pill and circulating in the blood work because. The hormones cause the woman's body to mimic the activities of a pregnancy and disrupt the ovarian cycle, preventing ovulation.
Effects of estrogen include ________. growth of the breasts at puberty
During the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle ________. progesterone levels are at their highest
Select the correct statement about the uterine cycle If fertilization occurs, the corpus luteum is maintained by a hormone secreted by the developing embryo.
Normally menstruation occurs when ________. blood levels of estrogen and progesterone decrease
Which of the following will occur immediately after ovulation? The endometrium enters its secretory phase
Which of the following statements about the female reproductive process is not true? Rebuilding the endometrium is under the control of prolactin.
All of the following statements referring to the uterine cycle are true except ________. FSH and LH directly promote development of the uterine endometrium
Which of the following phases or processes in the monthly reproductive cycle of the female occur simultaneously? regression of the corpus luteum and a decrease in ovarian progesterone secretion
Created by: vtlove116



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