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Thyroid Gland

What is the largest endocrine gland in the body? Thyroid
Where is the thyroid located front of the neck below the Adams's apple
What shape is the thyroid have? Butterfly
What crucial role does the thyroid help set? Metabolic rate
The thyroid is a storehouse for what? Iodine
What is the normal variant of the thyroid? Pyramidal lobe
How does the thyroid gland develope? As a tubular invagination in the floor of the primitive pharynx.
An incomplete decent may lead to the formation of thyroid abnormally high in the neck called: Lingual thyroid or aberrant thyroid
Excessive desent of the thyroid leads to: Substernal thyroid
The thyroid is located in the anterioinferior part of the neck
The thryroid is located in a space outlined by muscles, trachea, esophogus, carotid arteries and jugular veins
The thyroid is made up of Right and Left lobes
The right and left lobes are connected by the Isthmus draping over the trachea
The superior border of the lobes begin at the Thyroid cartilage
The Right lobe is often larger than the left
Tall individuals glands longitudinally elongated
shorter individuals glands more oval
Normal dimensions of the lobes vary widely
The anteroposterior diameter is the most reliable measurement of the thyroid.
Four arteries supply blood The upper poles receive blood via two superior thyroid arteries that arise from the ECA. The inferior thyroid artery is a branch of the thyrocervical trunk. ( a branch of the subclavian a.)
What makes up the major neurovascular bundle? Internal Jugular Vein, vagus nerve, CCA
What makes up the minor neurovascular bundle? inferior thyroid artery, recurrent laryngeal nerve mark the posterior border of the thyroid.
Anatomic variants of the thyroid pyramidal lobe 15-30% can arise from either lobe
Hypothyroidism Hashimoto's disease
Hyperthyoidism Graves' disease
Hypothyroidism symptoms dry brittle hair, angina, bradycardia, constipation, menorrhagia, dysmenorrhea, dry yellowish skin, cold intolerance, decreased sweating, lethargy, tiredness,fatigue, brittle nails
Hyperthyroidism symptoms hair-thinning, fine, Tachycardia, palpitations, diarrhea, amenorrhea, decreased menstrual flow, hot, flushed, moist skin, heat intolerance, increased sweating, nervousness, irritability, insominia, palmar erythema
Goiter refers to a diffuse enlargement of the thyroid gland
Goiters are caused by hypothyroid and hyperthyroid conditions
goiters can become large and compress the esophagus and trachea
Posterolateral Landmarks of the thyroid on transverse views the CCA and internal jugular vein form the posterior lateral border of the gland
Posterolateral Landmarks of the thyroid the artery is located medial to the vein
Medial Landmark The air-filled trachea forms the medial border and appears hyperechoic with posterior shadowing
Anterolateral Landmark The sternocleidomastoid is lateral and superficial to the omohyoid. The sternothyroid, sternohyoid and omohyoid muscles collectivley called the strap muscles form the anterolateral border of the gland.
Strap Muscles directly superficial to the thyroid gland is the sternothyroid muscle,which is bordered by the sternohyoid anteriorly and omohyoid laterally.
Posterior Landmark longus colli muscle appears as low-level, echogenic structure defining the posterior border of the gland
Normal thyroid is uniformaly echogenic, with medium-to high level echoes similiar to testes
The strap muscles are hypoechoic relative to the gland
The LCM (longus colli muscle) is triangulary shaped
The esophagus is visualized slightly to the left of mid-line adjacent to the trachea and appears and as circular hypoechoic structure.
In the sagittal plane of imaging the strap muscles and SCM (sternocleidomastoid muscle) are anterior to the gland.
The strap muscles consist of sternothyroid, sternohyoid and omohyoid muscles which form the anterolateral border of the gland
What muscle is not a strap muscle? the sternonocleidomastoid muscle which is located lateral and superficial to the omohyoid muscle.
Myxedema when hypothyroidism first appears in older children or adults
Common symptoms of myxedema lethargy, slow intellectual fx, fatigue, weakness, cold-intolerance, contipation, weight increase, hair loss, bradycardia.
Cretinism (hypothyroidism) presents when? during development and infancy
Common symptoms of Cretinism floppy infant, thick, protruding tongue, poor feeding, chocking episodes, thickened facial features, constipation, short stature, abnormal bone growth, mental retardation.
Hyperthyroidism results from what? over secretion of thyroid horomone
Hyperthyroidism is predominantly found in whom? adult women peak incidence between 30 and 50 yrs.
Three causes collectively account for 99% of hyperthyroidism cases. diffuse toxic hyperplasia(Graves'disease)-85% Toxic multinodudular goiter and toxic adenoma
Hyperthyroidism is also called? thyrotoxicosis
It occurs as part of a syndrome which may include______________and _______________ and is know as Graves' disease goiter and exopthalmos
Causes of thyroid englargement Inborn errors of throid hormone synthesis, nutritional iodine deficiency, goitrogenic substances, nontoxic nodular goiter, diffuse toxic goiter (graves' disease) throiditis (Hashimoto's ) and neoplasms (malignant or benign)
Toxic goiter refers to a goiter with hyperthyroidism
Created by: lelibet



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