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Chapter Three:

Cells and Tissues (II)

Regeneration The replacement of destroyed tissue by the same kind of cells
Fibrosis Repair by dense (fibrous) connective tissue, that is, by the formation of scar tissue
Neoplasm An abnormal growth of cells; sometimes cancerous
Hyperplasia The enlargement of certain body tissues (or organs) because there is some local irritant or condition that stimulates the cells
Atrophy A reduction in size or wasting away of an organ or cell resulting from disease or lack of use
Tissues Groups of cells that are similar in structure and function
Epithelium One of the primary tissues; covers the surface of the body and lines the body cavities, ducts, and vessels
Simple Epithelium Single layer of cells
Stratified Epithelium More than one layer of cells
Apical Surface Surface of an epithelial cell that faces the body surface or of an internal organ
Basement Membrane A thin layer of extracellular material to which epithelial cells are attached in mucosal surfaces
Goblet Cells Individual cells (simple glands) that produce muus
Serous Membranes Membranre that lines a cavity without an opening to the outside of the body (except for joint cavities); serosa
Gland An organ specialized to secrete or excrete substances for further use in the body or for elimination
Secretion An active process in which the glandular cells obtain needed materials from the blood and use them to make their secretion which they then discharge
Endocrine Gland Ductless glands that empty their hormonal products directly into the blood
Exocrine Gland Glands that have ducts through which their secretions are carried to a body surface (skin or mucosa)
Connective Tissue A primary tissue; form and function vary extensively. functions include support, storage, and protection
Extracellular Matrix Nonliving material in connective tissue consisting of ground substance and fibers that separate the living cells
Edema An abnormal accumulation of fluid in body parts or tissues; causes swelling
Stroma Internal framework which can support many free blood cells (large lymphocytes) in lymphoid organs such as lymph nodes, the spleen, and one marrow
Intercalated Disks Contain gap junctions that allow ions to pass freely from cell to cell, resulting in rapid conduction of the exciting electrical impulse across the heart
Neurons Cells of the nervous system specialized to transmit messages throughout the body
Supporting Cells Insulate, support, and protect the delicate neurons, make up the structures of the nervous system---the brain, spinal cord, and nerves
Created by: sarah23me1