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MOT 133

Cardiovascular Exam

What are the 3 general functions of red blood cells? 1. Transport 2. Regulation (Regulate)3. Protection
What are 4 materials transported by the blood? 1. Gasses 2. Hormones 3. Nutrients 4. Waste products
How much blood does the average person have in liters? 4 – 6 liters
What is the normal pH of blood? 7.35 to 7.45
What are the two types of hemopoietic tissue that produce blood cells? 1. Red bone marrow 2. Lymphatic tissue
Red blood cells, also known as RBC, are what shape? Biconcave
Red blood cells medical name is? Erythrocytes
Do Red blood cells have a nucleus ? Yes, until they mature.
Do red blood cells have a nucleus throughout their lifespan? No
What determines a person’s blood type? Genetics or Hereditary
What is the common name for Leukocytes? White Blood Cells
Give one word to describe the function of a Leukocyte. Protection
List the 5 types of Leukocytes 1. Basofil 2. Neutrophil 3. Eosinophils 4. Monocytes 5. Lymphocytes
What does a person have if they have a high White Blood Count? Leukocytosis
What does a person have if they have a low White Blood Count? Leukopenia
What is the medical term for a clot? Thrombus
The heart is located in the chest cavity between the lungs, what is this area called? Mediastinum
What are the 3 cardiac membranes that surround the heart, name them from outer most to innermost. 1. Fibrous pericardium 2. Parietal pericardium 3. Visceral pericardium
What is another name for the visceral pericardium? Epicardium
What is the cardiac muscle called? Myocardium
What membrane lines the chambers of the heart? Endocardium
List the path of blood flow through the right side of the heart. 1. Superior/Inferior vena cava 2. Rt Atrium 3. Tricuspid Valve (Rt AV valve)4. Rt Ventricle 5. Pulmonary Semilunar valve 6. Pulmonary Artery 7. Lungs
List the path of blood flow through the left side of the heart? 1. Lungs 2. Pulmonary veins 3. Lt Atrium 4. Mitral valve (left AV valve) 5. Left Ventricle 6. Aortic Semilunar valve 7.Aorta 8. Body (includes the heart)
What is the purpose of coronary vessels? To supply blood to the heart
What is ischemia? Lack of oxygen
What is infarct? Tissue death
Systole? Contraction
Diastole? Relaxation
Cardiac cycle? Everything that happens in one heartbeat
What is the name of your natural anatomical pace maker? SA node
Where is the SA node located? RT atrium
What 3 parts of the electrical conduction system bring about ventricular contraction? 1. bundle of His 2. bundle branches 3. Purkinje fibers
What 2 parts of the electrical conduction system bring about atrial contraction? 1. SA node 2. AV node
How would you define the term fibrillation? Loss of rhythm with NO effective pumping
Define palpitation? Being aware of an irregular heartbeat
Heart rate that is less than 60 beats per min is called? Bradycardia
Heart rate that is sustained at over 100 beats per min is called? Tachycardia
The amount of blood pumped by the ventricles in one minute is called? Cardiac output
In your brain we have two cardiac centers that inhibit and accelerate what is this part of the brain called? Medulla (vital sign center of the brain)
The vascular system consists of 3 things. What are they? 1. Arteries 2. Capillaries 3. Veins
Arteries and veins have 3 layers – name them from innermost to outermost 1. Tunica intima 2. Tunica media 3. Tunica externa
In regards to the cardiovascular system, how would you define the term Anastomosis? Connection of vessels making an alternate pathway
Capillaries carry blood from where to where? Arterioles to venules
3 types of material exchange that take place in capillaries. 1. Diffusion – exchange gases 2. Filtration – plasma and nutrients 3. Osmotic pressure – fluid
List the 3 pathways of circulation that do not involve the heart. 1. Pulmonary Circulation – Lungs – exchanges gases. 2. Systemic Circulation – Whole Body – exchanges nutrients and gases. 3. Segmented pathway - Hepatic Portal Circulation - Liver – nutrients, waste, toxins
What is the site of exchange for gases and nutrients between the fetus and the mother is what? Placenta
The force that blood exerts against the vessel walls is called what? Blood pressure
If the blood pressure is consistently higher than normal, the person is said to have what? Hypertension
List 6 of 7 factors that will help maintain blood pressure in the normal range. 1. Blood force and rate 2. Venous return 3. Viscosity of blood 4. Loss of blood 5. Hormones 6. Elasticity of large arteries 7. Peripheral resistance
The respiratory pump affects veins where? In the chest cavity
There are presenting symptoms a patient may have that would warrant further investigation to diagnose cardiovascular disease. 1. Shortness of breath 2. Labored breathing 3. Chest pain 4. Fatigue 5. Palpitations 6. Cyanosis 7. Edema 8. Syncope (fainting)
Most cardiovascular disease can be diagnosed by a simple test called what? EKG
Coronary artery disease is when deposits of plaque cause the lumen of the artery to do what? Stenos or get narrow
The surgical attempt to open constricted arteries with a balloon is called what? Angioplasty
Angina pectoris is chest pains upon what? Exertion
Diaphoresis is a common symptom of many cardiac diseases and is described as what? Cold sweats
What are the typical pains of a myocardial infarction. 1. Chest pain 2. Left arm pain 3. Jaw pain 4. Pain in your back 5. Epigastric pain
What are two primary causes of cardiac arrest? Anoxia and disturbance or interruption electrical stimuli
If blood is flowing through the pulmonary artery, it is going to what organ? Lungs
If you are taking a blood pressure with a sphygmomanometer and a stethoscope which artery are you listening to? Brachial
Blood that is rich in oxygen and low in carbon dioxide is found where? 1. Pulmonary veins 2. Left atrium 3. Mitral Valve 4. Left ventricle 5. Aortic Valve 6. Aorta out to the body
Blood that is low in oxygen and hi in carbon dioxide is found where? 1. Vena cava 2. Rt atrium 3. Tricuspid valve 4. Rt ventricle 5. Pulmonary SL valve 6. Pulmonary artery back to the lungs
The most prevalent cardiovascular disease is? Hypertensive heart disease
In congestive heart failure, is the heart pumping adequately or inadequately? Inadequately
What is Cor pulmonale? Right sided heart failure
A patient who has pulmonary edema may have abnormal breath sounds such as rales, ronchi or wheezing. True or false? True
The non-inflammatory disease of the heart muscle resulting in enlargement is called what? Cardiomyopathy
Cardiomegaly is what? Enlarged heart
Pericarditis is what – Inflammation of the pericardium
True or False – endocarditis is usually an inflammation that is secondary to an infection from someplace else in the body? True
What is the bacteria that causes Rheumatic fever? Strep
What is the bacteria that causes Rheumatic fever? Strep
A patient with a history of Rheumatic fever or Rheumatic heart disease are also advised to receive what type of medication prior to any dental procedure? Antibiotics
Valve insufficiency is what? Failure of the valve to close completely
Valve stenosis – Valve hardens and doesn’t completely open
Valve commissurotomy – surgical enlargement of a valve opening
What is an arrhythmia? irregular heartbeat
What causes an arrhythmia? something wrong with the conduction system
A life threatening shock that we describe with one word because it has many causing factors that without treatment it will kill you. Anaphylactic shock
The basic definition of Cardiogenic shock is? Any insult that disturbs the heart’s ability to pump blood; (MI, heart failure, certain arrhythmias, valve failure)
True or false – Cardiac Taomponade is caused when the myocardium decreases output and can be treated by withdrawing the fluid from the sac that surrounds the heart. (True)
True or False - Embolis are only made of clots of blood. (False)
True or False - Doppler or ultrasound studies that are often used to diagnose reduced blood flow in vessels. (True)
What is phlebitis? Inflammation of a vein
If a person has Thrombophlebitis, do we often see a difference in one extremity versus the other? Yes
What blood type is considered the universal donor? O
What blood type is considered the universal recipient? AB
If a person is type A blood, which antibody would be present in the plasma? Anti B
What is the formal medical term for the word platelets (Which helps the blood to clot)? - Thrombocytes
Buerger Disease is Inflammation of which veins in the extremities? The peripheral arteries & veins
Define the term anemia Low red blood cell count
What test do we use to prevent a blood transfusion reaction? A blood typing cross matching test.
How do you get Classic Hemophilia ? It’s hereditary
Classic hemophilia is a result of what type of deficiency? Factor 8
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC) is a condition when you have hemorrhaging and thrombosis happening when? at the same time (typically after delivery).
Created by: kbcanarr