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VCOM Micro 22 -10/16

Block 1 - Micro 22 - Pathogenesis of Medically Important Parasites - 10/16/2009

How many people die from Malaria each year? 1.5-2.7 million
What are Apicomplexa? The Apicomplexa are a large group of protists, most of which possess a unique organelle called apicoplast and an apical complex structure involved in penetrating a host's cell
What are the six steps of Malaria inside the human host Sporozoites injected during mosquito feeding Invade liver cells Exoerythrocytic schizogony (merozoites) Merozoites invade RBCs Repeated erythrocytic schizogony cycles Gametocytes infective for mosquito
What is the life cycle of Malaria within a mosquito? Gametocytes infective for mosquito Fusion of gametes in gut Sporogony on gut wall in hemocoel Passes through gut wall Sporozoites invade salivary glands
What is the species of mosquito that transmits Malaria? Anopheles
What stage of malaria is injected by the mosquito into a human host sporozoites
What do the malarial trophozoites ingest and what is the diagnostic sign that this has occured? hemoglobin, thus resulting in hemozoin or the build up of residual heme iron, which is crystalized in the RBC. This results in a darker pigmentation of the RBC.
How soon after infection will symptoms of Malaria develop 8 days to months depending upon the type of Plasmodium (Falciparum is the most rapid)
What are the symptoms associated with malaria Flu like symptoms, anemia, paroxysms of chills, sweats, fever occurring in a cyclic pattern which matches with the RBC lysis and release of merozoites
How often does fever peak for: Plasmodium Falciparum Plasmodium Vivax Plasmodium Malariae Plasmodium Falciparum - Every 24 hours Plasmodium Vivax - Every other day Plasmodium Malariae - Every three days
Cerebral malaria is caused most commonly by _______ Plasmodium Falciparum. This results in capillary plugging and a loss of red cell flexibility
Which of the following a male and which is female? Microgametocyte Macrogametocytes Microgametocytes (male) Macrogametocytes (female)
What is the Gametoctye activating factor for malaria in mosquitos Xanthurenic acid
What are the two primary pathological effects of the Acanthamoebas Acanthamoeba Keratitis: A rare disease where amoebae invade the cornea of the eye. Granulomatous Amebic Meningoencephalitis: Over 100 cases of (GAE) caused by Acanthamoeba have been documented.
What are the symptoms of an Acanthamoeba infection? Foreign body sensation, severe ocular pain, photophobia and blurred vision.
How is Acanthamoeba typically contracted? Through improper contact use
What are the diffrent stages of the Wuchereria bancrofti life cycle -Mosquito ingests microfilariae -Microfilarae grow into juveniles which are injected into human host -Juveniles develop to adults in lympatic system -Breed -Birth Microfilariae
Which is larger for Wuchereria bancrofti, the male adult worm or the female? The female is larger - male worms are 1½ inches long - females are 2-4 inches long
What is a common disease associated with Wuchereria bancrofti infection? Elephantiasis - the clogging of lymph vessels and the consequential build up of fluid in the extracellular space
What are the three levels of filariasis disease? incubation, acute (inflammatory), and obstructive (chronic) incubation - asymptomatic to low grade fever acute - inflammation as a result of the female worm birthing microfilariae obstructive phase - blocking of lymph vessels by dead worms
How does one contract Ascaris Lumbricoides? Consuming the eggs contained within the fecal leaving of an infected individual (dirt, or on plant matter)
What is the life cycle of Ascaris Lumbricoides? -The egg is consumed -immature worms hatch from the eggs in stomach -The larvae are carried to the lungs and then to the throat where they are swallowed. -In the intestines it develops into adult -Adult female worms lay eggs that are passed in feces.
What percent of Ascariasis are symptomless? 85%
What is the definitive host and intermediate host for Echinococcus granulosus? Definitive - dogs and other canidae Intermediate Host - Sheep, Goats, Swine, humans
What is the major pathology associated with infection by either Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis hydatid cysts
Which is more deadly Eichinococcus granulosus or Eichinococcus multilocularis E. multilocularis E. multilocularis produces a more serious condition than E. granulosus as the smaller hydatid cyst becomes more irregular, filled with connective tissue and gelatinous masses, they grows like a malignant metastatic tumor
Created by: nladd