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Ch 31 Urinary

Fundamentals of Nursing Care Chapter 31 Urinary Elimination and Care

Normal range of urine production per day 1000 to 3000 mL/day
Minimal amount of urinary output per hour 30 mL/hour minimal
Oligura Urinary output of less than 30 mL/hr
Causes of oliguria decreased fluid intake, dehydration, illness, urinary obstruction, renal failure, hemorrhage, severe loss of body fluids
Polyuria Urinary output greater than 3000 mL/day
Causes of polyuria excessive fluid intake, consumption of alcohol, diuretics
Anuria absence of urine or minimal urine production
Dialysis Process of using a machine to filter waste products and salts, and to remove excess fluid from the blood
normal pH of urine 4.5 to 8.0
What can cause pH to lower A diet high in protein or cranberries will cause pH to become lower, or more acidic
What can cause pH to become higher A diet high in citrus fruits, dairy products, or vegetables will cause pH to be higher, or more alkaline
Specific gravity Result of comparing weight of a substance with an equal amount of water
Normal specific gravity 1.001 to 1.029
What does it mean when specific gravity is high? It means that the urine is more concentrated
What does it mean when specific gravity is low? It means the urine is more dilute.
What may cause a high specific gravity? Can be the result of dehydration, hemorrhage, or diabetes mellitus
What may cause a low specific gravity? May be caused by excessive fluid intake or impaired kidney function
Normal characteristics of urine straw-colored, clarity is clear, 1000-3000 mL/day, mild odor, pH 4.5 to 8.0, and specific gravity from 1.001 to 1.029
When blood is present in the urine: Hematuria
A decrease in volume of urine may be a sign of what? Dehydration, infection, or renal impairment
What is the quickest way to assess whether or not a patient is retaining water? Perform daily weights at the same time each day with the same scale, and with the patient wearing approximately the same amt of clothing
Remember, a gallon of water weighs approximately 8 lbs (3.6 kg)
The average person urinates how many times per day? Four to six times per day
Increased frequency of urination may be a sign of: UTI, bladder inflammation, or diabetes mellitus
Painful or difficult urination is called what Dysuria
Burning during urination mau ne indicative of what? UTI, bladder or urethral inflammation
What does a urinalysis test for? Determines the presence of renal calculi, UTI, malignancy, and diseases affecting the kidneys
Inability to control the passing of urine is: Urinary incontinence
Urinary Retention Inability to empty the bladder at all or the inability to completely empty the bladder, can be acute or chronic
What is happening in urinary retention Kidneys are functioning normally and producing urine, and the ureters are transporting the urine to the bladder to be stored but for some reason the bladder is not emptying.
What can cause urinary retention? An obstruction such as a kidney stone, an enlarged prostate gland, a tumor, a pregnant uterus, an infection, or scar tissue may cause retention
Other causes of urinary retention? UTIs, disorders or diseases of of nerves that regulate the bladder and urinary sphincters, postoperative complications due to anesthesia, inflammation, edema from surgery, and medications
Frequent cause of retention in older men Enlarged prostate
Hydronephrosis stretching of renal pelvis due to obstruction of flow of urine from the bladder
What can hydronephrosis lead to if not relieved? Kidney atrophy and chronic renal failure
What may persistent nocturia be due to? Underlying disease process such as congestive heart failure, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, UTI, an enlarged prostate, or kidney disease
Residual Urine urine that remains in the bladder after the patient voids
Normal amount of urine left in the bladder after voiding 100 mL
Created by: loweunde
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