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Understanding Anatomy & Physiology Chapters 23 and 25

Sertoli Cells cells contained in the wall of the seminiferous tubules that promote the development of sperm by supplying nutrients, removing waste, and secreting the hormone inhibin, which plays a role in the maturation and release of sperm
Leydig Cells clusters of interstitial cells lying between the seminiferous tubules that produce testosterone
Vas Deferens Travels up the spermatic cord, through the inguinal canal, and into the pelvic cavity, loops over the ureter and descends along the posterior bladder wall
Spermatic Cord Strand of connective tissue and muscle extending from the abdomen to each testicle
What does the spermatic cord contain? The spermatic cord contains the sperm duct (vas deferens), blood, lymphatic vessels, and nerves
Seminal vesicle Secretions are produced from the seminal vesicles to make the sperm more alkaline and also to provide fructose as an energy source for sperm motility
Seminiferous tubules Ducts in which sperm are produced
Where is testosterone produced? Interstitial cells of the testes, leydig cells
What do the seminial vesicles secrete? Secrete thick, yellowish fluid that makes up 60% of semen and contains fructose and other substances that nourish and ensure sperm motility
What does the prostate gland secrete? A thin, milky alkaline fluid into the urethra that makes up 30% of semen that helps with sperm motility
What do the bulbourethral glands secrete? A clear fluid into the penile portion of the urethra during sexual arousal to serve as a lubricant and also neutralizes the acidity of residual urine in the urethra to protect the sperm
Epididymis Provides a place for the sperm to mature and remain until ejaculation
Spermatogenesis begins: Spermatogenesis beings when a male reaches puberty and usually continues throughout life.
Mature sperm remain fertile for how long? forty to sixty days
Corpus cavernosum Two larger cylinders of tissue inside the penis that fill the shaft of the penis with blood during sexual arousal
Corpus Spongiosum Smaller cylinder of tissue inside the penis that encircles the urethra
Which hormones produce the enlargement of testes? The onset of puberty is marked by the secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone by the hypothalamus, triggering the secretion of FSH and LH
Meiosis Parent cell splits it's supply of 46 chromosomes to form two daughter cells each with 23 chromosomes
Mitosis Produces two daughter cells, each with forty six chromosomes
Females primiary reproductive organ The ovaries are the female's primary reproductive organs
Ovaries Sit on each side of the uterus and produce both egg cells (ova) and sex hormones
Outer layer of the uterus Perimetrium
Myometrium Thick, middle layer of uterus that consists of smooth muscle that contracts during labor to expel the fetus from the uterus
Endometrium Innermost layer of the vagina where the embryo attaches
Lying between the seminiferous tubules are clusters of ______________ called ____________ that produce testosterone. Interstitial cells, leydig cells
Sperm leave the tail of the epididymis and pass into the ______________? vas deferens
What is a tube that carries sperm out of the epididymis to the ejaculatory duct? vas deferens
A surge in which hormone causes ovulation? Lutenizing hormone
What hormones drive the menstrual cycle? Estrogen and progesterone
As the vas deferens turns downward, it joins the ______ to form the __________ duct. seminal vesicle, ejaculatory duct
Fundus Curved upper portion of the uterus that can determine how far along gestation is
Fimbriae Fingerlike projections that fan over the ovary to catch the emerging oocyte
Vagina A muscular tube about three inches long that serves as a receptacle for the penis and sperm, a route for discharge of menstral blood, and passageway for birth of a baby
Vagina Ruggae located at the bottom of the vagina consisting of ridges that help stimulate the penis during intercourse and allow for expansion during childbirth
Ampulla The middle portion of the fallopian tube, the usual site for egg fertilization
Spermatogenesis begins? Spermatogenesis beings when a male reaches puberty and usually continues throughout life.
 Purpose of enzymes contained in acrosome The enzymes help the sperm penetrate the egg during fertilization
Ovary two ovaries sit on each side of the uterus where they produce both egg cells (ova) and sex hormones
Endometrium Innermost layer of the uterus where the embryo attaches
Acini Sac-like clusters that are attached to each lobule in the breast that secrete milk during lactation
Areola pigmented area that encircles the nipple of the breast that consist of numerous sebaceous glands that consist of sebum
Persistent high levels of estrogen and progesterone would cause what Lack of follicular development
Follicle stimulating hormone secretes estrogen to thicken the endometrium in the mentral cycle
Lutenizing hormone what is happening when high levels are secreted Causes follicle to rupture and releases the ovum, ovulation occurs.
Homozygous If a person has two alleles that are the same
Heterozygous If a person has two alleles that are different
Genome: complete set of genetic information for one person
Why do mature red blood cells not carry dna? They do not have a nucleus
Female gametes Sex cells, eggs (ova)
What are the milk producing structures of the breast? Acini
Created by: loweunde
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