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Green Module

Key points for the mid term and exam

QuestionAnswer
Acute Pain Dolor
Acute heat Calor
Acute redness Rubor
Acute swelling Tumor
Acute loss of function Functio laesa
Detect load placed on the tendons Golgi Tendon Organs
Golgi Tendon Organ Release Uses Decreases muscle spasm ◦Decreases muscle tension ◦when on-site work is too painful ◦muscles spasm ◦hypertonicity
Golgi Tendon Organ Release Contraindications (TQ) Locally painful or acute conditions ◦Hypotonic or atonic muscles ◦Tissue fragility ◦Pathologies of connective tissue ◦Skin lesions including healing incisions
Application of GTO Technique (5 points) Causes a reflexive relaxation in the agonist muscle Compression/distortion at musculotendinous junction Hold for a minimum of 30 seconds or until the muscle relaxes C or S bowing shape can be applied Rate is slow and pressure is moderate to deep
GTO location (TQ) Golgi tendon organs are proprioceptive nerve receptors or minute sensory organs located int he tendons near the junction with the muscle
Origin and Insertion techniques (TS) 5 points Variation of GTO technique Used for short tendons Applied to the origin using with fiber and cross fiber strokes (plus signs). Applied in sections several centimeters apart Treatment to the insertion is applied in the same fashion
O&I Uses (TQ) 4 points Decreases muscle spasm ◦Decreases muscle tone ◦When treatment to the muscle belly is too painful ◦Uses GTO to decrease alpha neuron firing (which causes contraction of the muscle)
O&I Contraindications Locally painful or acute conditions, hypotonic or atonic muscles, tissue fragility, pathologies of connective tissue, skin lesions including healing incisions
Muscle Spindle Major sensory organ of the muscle Monitors length and helps control movements ◦Detects stretch and speed of stretch Also sets different levels of tone in response to stress or activity by increasing gamma efferent nerve firing
Muscle Approximation Technique uses the reflex effect of muscle spindles to reduce tone or spasm in the muscle Bringing the ends of the muscles closer together lessens the stretch on the spindles which decreases gamma firing
Muscle Approximation Technique Approximation of the origin and insertion Pincer grasp the muscle attachments and bring them closer together Rate is slow and muscle is held until it relaxes
MA Uses ◦Decreases muscle tone◦Decreases muscle spasmMA
MA Contraindications Locally painful or acute conditions, hypotonic or atonic muscles, tissue fragility, pathologies of connective tissue, skin lesions including healing incisions
Sacroiliac Joints (SI joints) Strong weight-bearing compound joint■Anterior synovial joint (auricular surfaces of sacrum and ilium)■Posterior syndesmosis joint (slightly movable joint between tuberositiesof sacrum and ilium)■Weight transferred from axial skeleton to ilia via SI joint
Pubic Symphysis It is a secondary cartilaginous joint■Consists of fibrocartilaginous interpubicdisc and surrounding ligaments uniting the bodies of the pubic bones in the median plane■Interpubicdisc is wider in women
Primary Joints of the Pelvis Sacroiliac Joints (SI joints) Pubic Symphysis
Pubic Symphysis Thick ligaments at the superior and inferior margins of the symphysis■Rectus abdominis and external oblique muscles strengthen the joint
SI Joint Ligaments Anterior Sacro-iliac ligaments Interosseous sacro-illiac ligaments Posterior sacro-iliac ligaments
Anterior Sacro-iliac ligaments Helps form the anterior aspect of the fibrous capsule of the synovial joint
Interosseous sacro-illiac ligaments Transferrsweight from axial skeleton to appendicular skeleton (ilium)
Posterior sacro-iliac ligaments Pulls ilium toward the midline which squishes the sacrrum in place
Sacrotuberous Ligament (TQ) Passes from posterior ilium/lateral sacrum/coccyx to the ischial tuberosity■Helps prevent anterior and inferior rotation of the superior sacrum during weight bearing■Anchors the inferior sacrum to the ischium preventing superior and posterior rotation
Sacrospinous Ligament (TQ) Passes from lateral sacrum/coccyx to the ischial spine■The sacrospinous ligament divides/creates the greater and lesser sciatic foramen
SI Joint Movements Movement is limited by interlocking articulating bones and SI ligaments■Slight gliding and rotary movements■When weight lifting in a standing position, exceptional force is transferred to the superior sacrum
SI Joint Movements This is counter balanced by the sacrotuberous and the sacrospinous ligaments which anchor the inferior end of the ■The transfer of weight occurs anterior to the axis of the SI joint so the sacrum is pushed inferiorly and anteriorly
SI Joint Movements ■sacrum to the ischium, preventing its superior and posterior rotation
Ligament of Bigalow Ilio- Femoral Ligament
Weakest of the three hip joints Ishiofemoral ligament
Ligaments of the hip joint Iliofemoral, ischialfemoral, pubofemoral
Hip joint Ligament - Anterior and Superior Iliofoemoral
Hip joint ligament - Anterior and Inferior pubofemoral
Hip joint ligament - Posterior Ishialfemoral
Responsible for housing an artery used to carry nutrients to the head of the femur Ligament of head of femur
Gluteus Maximus Origin Ilium posterior to posterior gluteal line; dorsal surface of sacrum and coccyx; sacrotuberous ligament
Gluteus Maximus Insertion Most fibers end in iliotibial tract, which inserts into lateral condyle of tibia; some fibers insert on gluteal tuberosity
Gluteus Maximus Action Extends thigh (especially from flexed position) and assists in its lateral rotation; steadies thigh and assists in rising from sitting position
Superficial Muscles of the Gluteal Region Gluteusmaximus Gluteus medius Gluteus minimus TFL–Tensorfasciae latae
Deep Muscles of the Gluteal Region Piriformis Triceps Coxae Group: Obturator internus, Superior gamelli, Inferior gamelli Quadratus femoris
Gluteus Medius Origin External surface of ilium between anterior and posterior gluteal lines
Gluteus Medius Insertion Lateral surface of greater trochanter of femur
Gluteus Medius Action Abduct and medially rotate thigh; keep pelvis level when ipsilateral limb is weight bearing and advance opposite (unsupported) side during its swing phase
Gluteus Minimus Origin External surface of ilium between anterior and inferior gluteal lines
Gluteus Minimus Insertion Anterior surface of greater trochanter of femur
Gluteus Minimus Action Abduct and medially rotate thigh; keep pelvis level when ipsilateral limb is weight bearing and advance opposite (unsupported) side during its swing phase
Tensor Faciae Latae Origin ASIS (anterior superior iliac spine); anterior part of iliac crest
Tensor Faciae Latae Insertion Iliotibial tract, which attaches to lateral condyle of tibia
Tensor Faciae Latae Action Abduct and medially rotate thigh; keep pelvis level when ipsilateral limb is weight bearing and advance opposite (unsupported) side during its swing phase
Piriformis Origin Anterior surface of sacrum; sacrotuberous ligament
Piriformis Insertion Superior border of greater trochanter of femur
Piriformis Action Laterally rotate extended thigh and abduct flexed thigh; steady femoral head in acetabulum
Passed through the greater sciatic foramen Piriformis
Obturator Internus Origin Pelvic surface of obturator membrane and surrounding bones
Obturator Internus Insertion Medial surface of greater trochanter (trochanteric fossa) of femur
Obturator Internus Action Laterally rotate extended thigh and abduct flexed thigh; steady femoral head in acetabulum
Obturator Externus Origin Margins of obturator foramen and obturator membrane
Obturator Externus Insertion Trochanteric fossa of femur
Obturator Externus Action Laterally rotates thigh; steadies head of femur in acetabulum
Superior and Inferior Gemelli Origin Superior: ischial spine Inferior: ischial tuberosity
Superior and Inferior Gemelli Insertion Medial surface of greater trochanter (trochanteric fossa) offemur
Superior and Inferior Gemelli Action Laterally rotate extended thigh and abduct flexed thigh; steady femoral head in acetabulum
Quadratus Femoris Origin Lateral border of ischial tuberosity
Quadratus Femoris Insertion Quadrate tubercle on intertro-chantericcrest of femur and area inferior to it
Quadratus Femoris Action Laterally rotates thigh; steadies femoral head in acetabulum