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American Gov review

American Government Review Ch. 8-11

TermDefinition
Bureaucracy organization with hierarchical structure and specific responsibilities intended to enhance efficiency and effectiveness ie. departments and agencies, IRS
Patronage System (Spoils System) System that rewards the supporters of successful political candidates and parties with government jobs while firing supporters of the opposing party.
Statutes Laws written by state legislatures and by Congress
Civil Service System A government employment system in which employees are hired on the basis of their qualifications and cannot be fired merely for belonging to the wrong political party
Iron Triangle Tight relationship between employees in government agencies, interest groups, and legislators and their staff members, all share an interest in specific policy issues and work together behind the scenes to shape laws and public policy.
Whistleblower An employee who reports or reveals misconduct by government officials or others.
Dual Court System Separate systems of state and federal courts in U.S. Each state court system is responsible for interpreting the laws and constitution of that specific state, while the federal courts are responsible for the U.S. Constitution and laws enacted by Congress.
Majority Opinion Appellate court opinion that explains the reasons for the case outcome as determined by a majority of judges
Writ of Certiorari A legal action that asks a higher court to call up a case from a lower court; the legal action used to ask the U.S. Supreme Court to accept a case for hearing.
Marbury v. Madison U.S. Supreme Court asserted the power of Judicial Review, despite the fact that the concept is not explicitly mentioned in the U.S. Constitution.
Impeachment Process in Congress for removal of the president, federal judges, and other high officials.
Filibuster A process in the U.S. Senate used to block or delay voting on proposed legislation or on an appointment of a judge or other official by talking continuously; 60 senators must vote to end a filibuster.
Amicus Brief A written argument submitted to an appellate court by those who are interested in the issue being examined but are not representing either party in the case; often submitted by interest groups’ lawyers to advance a specific policy position
Public Opinion Attitudes of individuals regarding their political leaders and institutions as well as political and social issues. Public opinion tends to be grounded in political values and can influence political behavior.
Elitism Theory that a select few—better educated, more informed, and more interested—should have more influence than others in our governmental process.
Political Ideology A consistent set of beliefs that forms a general philosophy regarding the proper goals, purposes, functions, and size of government.
Liberal Person who generally supports governmental action to promote equality, favors governmental intervention in the economy, and supports policies attempting to solve environmental issues.
Muckraking Investigating and exposing societal ills such as corruption in politics or abuses in business.
Mass Media Means by which information is transmitted to a large population across a large region ie. tv, radio, magazines, newspapers, and the Internet.
Conservative A person who believes in limiting government spending, preserving traditional patterns of relationships, and that big government is a threat to personal liberties.
Libertarian Person who supports individual liberty over government authority in economic, personal, and social realms.
Political Socialization Process in which people acquire political knowledge and form political values; also the conscious and unconscious transmission of political culture and values from one generation to another.
Gender Gap Differences in voting and policy preferences between women and men. After controlling for other factors, women tend to be more liberal and Democratic than men.
Gatekeepers A group or individuals who determine which stories will receive attention in the media and from which perspective.
Fairness Doctrine Policy that required television and radio broadcasters to provide time for opposing viewpoints on controversial issues so as to ensure fair and balanced reporting; formally abolished in 1987.
Created by: moo_30
 

 



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