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AICP Certification Exam Fall 2018

First Amendment Freedom of religion, speech, right to peaceably assembly - adult uses, signs, religion, group homes
Fifth amendment No person shall be deprived of property without due process of law nor shall private property be taken for public use without just compensation - takings & eminent domain
Fourteenth Amendment No state shall deprive any person of property without due process of law/equal protection - takings, eminent domain, exactions
Father of Regional Planning Patrick Geddes
Father of Zoning Edward Basset
Father of City Planning Daniel Burnham
Father of Modern Ecology Ian McHarg
Father of Modern Housing Code Lawrence Veiler
Father of Advocacy Planning Paul Davidoff
Lawrence Veiller Leading reformer in New York State Tenement House Law - "Dumbbel Tenements"
Robert Moses transformed New York Citys public works from the 1930s through the 1950s. He expanded the states park system and built numerous parkways. He built parks, playgrounds, highways, bridges, tunnels, and public housing
Clarence Perry Perry’s neighborhood unit -- an idealized, aspirational version of neighborhood -- was 160 acres (the acreage of a ½ mile square, within which Perry placed a circle with a ¼ mile radius), with a density of 10 units per acre and a population of 5,000.
Paul Lawrence Studies organizational change, design, and relationship between complex organizational structures and the technical, market, and other conditions of their immediate environment.
Lewis Mumford The City in History. 1961. Wrote for the New Yorker for many years, critical of sprawl and social problems - influenced by Patrick Geddes and influence on Jane Jacobs
Paul Davidoff 1960s, advocacy planning, argued that planners should represent special interest groups rather than acting for the good of the whole community.
Saul Alinsky community organizer, Rules for Radicals 1971, Back of the Yards neighborhood (1930s) boycotts, marches,
Sheryy Arnstein 1969 - publishes A Ladder of Citizen Participation. Worked in public health and non-profit research. Theory on types and purposes of public participation. Uses many Model Cities programs as examples. 8 rungs ranging from tokenism to citizen control.
Jacob Riis Published How the Other Half Lives 1890, resulted in housing reforms in NYC
Camillo Sittee Camillo Sitte (1843–1903) was a noted Austrian architect, painter and city planning theoretician with great influence and authority of the development of urban construction planning and regulation in Europe. "City Planning according to artistic principles
Lincoln Steffens The Shame of the Cities, Formed The American Magazine with them in 1906. Pushed for political reform in urban America through emotional appeal,
Robert Hunter Settlement House movement, particularly Hull House in Chicago, University Settlement in NY, and others in England, golf course design
Edward Basset Father of Zoning, Chair of Heights of Buildings Commission, whose final 1916 report was adopted as Zoning Resolution of NYC, Coined term "freeway" and credited with parkway concept.
Patrick Geddes Father of Regional Planning, published Cities in Evolution in 1941
Joseph Hudnut Became Dean of new Harvard Graduate School of Design in 1936, stayed until 1953. Served on US Commission on Fine Arts 1950-53. Architecture and the Spirit of Man; The Three Lamps of Modern Architecture.
Jane Jacobs The Death and Life of Great American Cities. Ideas of eyes on the street and social capital. Blasts garden city ideal, urban renewal, and traditional planning. Grassroots community organizer with no formal planning education.
Frank Lloyd Wright Architect and interior designer. Very influential concepts of the Usonian home and Broadacre City. Prairie school of architecture, organic and inspired by nature. The Disappearing City in 1932 expounds on his ideas about future urban form.
Lawrence Haworth The GOod City 1963- A good city provides opportunity and community, but modern cities favor opportunity overwhelmingly. Institutional structures are the not very sexy answer to the problem.
TJ Kent 1998. The Urban General Plan - seminal planning text -Changed planning from creating an ideal state to an activity stream that relates to problems, goals, program design, and evaluation.
Alan Altshuler The Goals of Comprehensive Planning - a 1965 blistering critique of comp planning. Not feasible, not politically viable, no professional legitimacy.
Charles Lindblom 1959 - "The Science of Muddling Through", incremental planning, He suggested that planning has to be piecemeal, incremental, opportunistic, and pragmatic.
Ian McHarg Design with Nature, 1969. How to achieve an ideal fit between built and natural environments. Developed land assessment system based on overlays and suitability. Basic concepts of GIS.
Mary Brooks Low income housing advocate for 30+ years. Director of the Housing Trust Fund Project at the Center for Community Change - promotes development of HTGs and neighborhood group involvement. Worked for APA and Suburban/Metro Action Institute.
Walter Christaller Central Place Theory 1933. Saw cities as systems of human settlements with size, location, and services determined by position in a hierarchy of places. Nested hexagons used to model placements.
Ernest Burgess With Robert Park and Louis Wirth wrote The City in 1925. Put forward a concentric ring model of urban form, where residents are sorted by economic and social class into zones around the CBD. Introduces concept of human ecology.
Homer Hoyt 1930 Sector Model of urban land use - a modification of the concentric ring theory. Keeps the CBD but accounts for transportation corridors changing land use patterns.
LeCorbusier radiant city (skyscrapers for high density living and working, surrounded by commonly owned park space), superblocks, separated uses
James Rouse Real estate developer, civic activist, philanthropist. Harundale Mall in Glen Burnie MD in 1958 is first enclosed shopping center east of the Mississippi and first built by a devleoper. creator/developer of Columbia, MD
Andres Duany Suburban Nation. Founder of the Congress of New Urbanism. First TND with Seaside, FL. Smart growth proponent. Form-based zoning and rural-to-urban transect concepts.
Joel Garreau Edge City: Life on the New Frontier is seminal work. Identified 180+ commerce center on the urban fringe taking on a new urban form.
Robert Lang Coined term "boomburgs" for new form of mostly metropolitan mostly Sunbelt city growth. Well-known advocate for Mountain West region.
Frederick Law Olmstead Sr. Designed Central Park; believed that the city plan should include all land uses (both public and private) and should be updated often to ensure they remain relevant
Frederick Law Olmstead Jr. Landscape architect and wildlife conservationist. Projects in Acadia, Yosemite, Everglades. McMillan Plan for DC. Boston's Emerald Necklace and master plan for Cornell campus. Bok Tower gardens. Forest Hills Gardens in 1909, a model garden suburb.
Alfred Bettman Filed amicus brief in Euclid case widely credited with turning SCOTUS's opinion. With Ladislaus Segoe, produced 1925 Cincinnati Plan. Helped draft Standard State Zoning Enabling Act and Standard City Planning Enabling Act in 1920s
1887 – Mugler v Kansas 14th Amend/Due Process case which ruled that KS could prohibit sale of alcohol based on PP
1909 – Welch v Swasey Boston can impose different height limits on buildings in different districts
1912 – Eubank v City of Richmond A ZO establishing building setback lines was held unconstitutional and not a valid use of the PP; violates the due process of law and is therefore unconstitutional under the 14th Amendmen
1915 – Hadacheck v Sebastian SC upheld Los Angeles case prohibiting establishment of a brick kiln within a recently-annexed 3-mile area
1922 – Pennsylvania Coal Company v Mahon SC indicated for the first time that a regulation of land use might be a taking if it goes too far.
1926 – Village of Euclid v Ambler Realty Co Established zoning as a legal use of PP by local government. The main issue in this case was “nuisance”, and that a certain use near a residence could be considered “a pig in a parlor”. Argued by Alfred Bettman, future 1st president of ASPO.
1928 – Nectow v City of Cambridge Court found for Nectow and against a provision in Cambridge’s ZO based on the due process clause. However, it did NOT overturn Euclid. This was the last zoning challenge to come before the SC until Berman v. Parker
1954 – Berman v Parker Established aesthetics and redevelopment as valid public purposes for exercising eminent domain. Wash.DC took private property and resold to a developer to achieve objectives of an established redevelopment plan.
1968 – Jones v Mayer Ruling that discrimination in selling houses was not permitted based on the 13th Amendment and Section 1982 abolishing slavery and creating equality for all US citizens.
1968 – Cheney v Village 2 at New Hope Legitimized planning unit development (PUD) process.
1972 – Golden v Planning Board of the Town of Ramapo NY State Court of Appeals case that upheld a growth control plan based on the availability of public services. Case further emphasized the importance of the Comp Plan and set the scene for nationwide growth management plans **performance standards
1971 – Citizens to Preserve Overton Park v Volpe Established hard look doctrine for environmental impact review. Section 4(f) DOT Act of 1966 – park use ok if no “feasible and prudent” alternative and “all possible planning to minimize harm”.
1971 – Calvert Cliffs’ Coordinating Committee v Atomic Energy Commission Made National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requirements judicially enforceable.
1972 – Sierra Club v Morton Opened up environmental citizen suits to discipline the resource agencies.
1972 - Just v Marinette County Significantly integrated public trust theories into a modern regulatory scheme. Shoreland zoning ordinance along navigable streams and other water bodies upheld.
1973 – Fasano v Board of Commissioners of Washington Co., Oregon zoning to be consistent w/ comp plans, and rezonings may be judicial rather than legislative. Central issue was spot zoning, 2 measures to be deemed valid: there must be a public need for the change in question; best available option
1974 – Village of Belle Terre v Boraas SC upheld the restrictive definition of a family as being no more than two unrelated people living together.
1975 – South Burlington County NAACP v Township of Mount Laurel I NJ Supreme court held that in developing municipalities in growing and expanding areas, provision must be made to accommodate a fair share of low and moderate income housing. Fundamental
1975 –Construction Industry of Sonoma County v. Petalum Limited the # of residential building permits per year to 500 & placed a population cap of 55,000. The purpose was to make sure that the growth rate did not exceed the City’s ability to fund capital improvements. Court upheld.
1976 – Young v. American Mini Theaters First sexually-oriented business case, which held that zoning for adult businesses does not automatically infringe on 1st amendment rights.
1976 – Hills v Dorothy Gautreaux The Chicago Housing Authority and HUD had to spread out concentration of public housing (scattered site housing), including into white suburbs that were not necessarily within Chicago. Argued under the Civil Rights Act of 1964
1976 – Home Builders v. City of Livermore Growth policy that timed phasing of future residential growth until performance standards are met; upheld the use of a moratorium.
1977 – Village of Arlington Heights v Metropolitan Housing Development: Established that discriminatory intent is required to invalidate zoning actions with racially disproportionate impact. Court overturned denial of rezoning to allow for multi-family residences in a previously single-family zoned area.
1978 – Penn Central Transportation Company v The City of New York: Restrictions on the development of Grand Central Station did NOT amount to a taking, since Penn Central could use TDR and secure a reasonable return on the property. Validated historic preservation controls.
1978 – TVA v. Hill (Secretary of Interior): Court forced full implementation and enforcement of the Endangered Species Act. Halted the Tellico Dam, which was almost completely built, because the endangered Snail Darter — a fish — was found.
1980 – Agins v. City of Tiburon Ruled there is a takings when 1st, deprives property of all economically viable use; and 2nd, when it fails to enhance a legitimate government interest- Open Space ZO of Tiburon does not result in taking w/o just compensation
1980 – Central Hudson v Public Service Commission: : 1st Amendment case which overruled the NY State Public Service Commission’s total ban on an electric utility’s advertisements to increase electric usage.
1981 – Metromedia, Inc v City of San Diego: Ordinance that substantially restricted onsite and off-site billboards was ruled unconstitutional under 1st amendment.
1982 – Loretto v Teleprompter Manhattan CATV Corporation Court held that any physical occupation is a taking, no matter how de minimus (landlords had been required under state law to allow cable company to install permanent cable TV facilities on their property).
1983 – South Burlington County NAACP v Township of Mount Laurel II This finding cured the deficiencies of Mt. Laurel I, and created the model fair housing remedy for exclusionary zoning. Municipalities must provide their fair share of low and moderate income housing in their region.
1984 – Members of City Council v Taxpayers of Vincent 1st amendment case which allowed the City Council to exert control over posting of election signs on public telephone poles.
1985 – City of Cleburne v Cleburne Living Center: SC decision which ruled that the City had illegally denied group homes special use permits based on neighbor’s unfounded fears
1985 – Williamson County Regional Planning Commission v Hamilton Bank Defined the ripeness doctrine for judicial review of takings claims.
1986 – City of Renton v Playtime Theaters: Upheld the requirement of minimum distances between SOBs.
1987 – First English Evangelical Church of Glendale v Co of Los Angeles: Allowed damages (as opposed to invalidation) as a remedy for regulatory taking. Just compensation clause of the 5th Amendment requires compensation for temporary takings which occur as a result of regulations that are ultimately invalidated.
1987 – Nollan v California Coastal Commission Created the essential nexus takings test for conditioning development approvals on dedications & exactions. A relationship must exist between what & what the local government wants (public access to beach).
1992 – Lucas v South Carolina Coastal Council Defined categorical regulatory taking. Compensation must be paid when all economically beneficial uses of land are taken unless uses are disallowed by title or by state law principles of nuisance.
1994 – Dolan v City of Tigard Extended Nollan’s essential nexus test to require “Rough proportionality” between development impacts and conditions on development. (bike path/store/lessening overall traffic)
1994 – City of Ladue v Gilleo SC ruled that the display of a sign by a homeowner was protected by the 1st amendment under freedom of speech.
1995 – Babbitt v Sweet Home Chap. of Communities for a Great OR Applied the Endangered Species Act to land development; Sec of Interior’s definition of harm is valid.
2002 – Tahoe-Sierra Preservation Council v Tahoe Regional Planning Agency: Sanctioned the use of moratoria & reaffirmed the “parcel-as-a-whole” rule for takings review. Moratoria on development not a per se taking under the 5th amendment, but should be analyzed under the multi-factor Penn Central test.
2005 – Lingle v. Chevron: Case brought by Chevron based on a claim that one of Hawaii’s statutes did not “substantially advance legitimate state interests”. Court ruled that even though Lingle could not be upheld on that issue - *severity of burden
2005 – Kelo et al. v City of New London the City taking private property by eminent domain and transferring it to a private entity for redevelopment Court held that the general benefits a community enjoyed from economic growth qualified such redevelopment plans as a permissible “public use”
2005 – City of Rancho Palos Verde v Abrams SC ruled that a licensed radio operator who was denied a CUP for a “commercial” antenna cannot seek monetary damages because it would distort the congressional intent of the Telecommunications Act of 1996.
2006 - Massachusetts v. EPA EPA must provide a reasonable justification for why they would not regulate greenhouse gases.
2006 - Rapanos v. United States The Army Corp of Engineers must determine whether there is a significant nexus between a wetland and a navigable waterway. This pulled back the ACOE’s jurisdiction regarding wetlands
2006 - SD Warren v. Maine Board of Environmental Protection: Hydroelectric dams are subject to Section 401 of the Clean Water Act.
Garden City Movement - 1898 Ebenezer Howard - The Garden City is self-contained with a population of 32,000 and a land area of 6,000 acres. The city itself would house 30,000 people on 1,000 acres, with remaining land & pop in farming areas. Land ownership =held by a corporation.
City Beautiful Movement late 1800s and early 1900s US Cities had severe poverty, crime, and blight - movement to address these issues through the expression of moral and civic virtue, leaders believed that creating a beautiful city would inspire residents to lead virtuous lives.
City Efficient Movement 1920s, standardization, reaction against the City Beautiful movement, which was seen as overly focused on beauty and not sufficiently concerned with matters of function and efficiency - focus on technical details - advent of auto - depression haulted
City Humane Movement 1930s, Developed in 1930s as a result of depression b. Focus on jobs and housing as a part of social policy
New Towns 1935, developed three cities based on Howard's ideas: Greendale, Wisconsin; Greenhills, Ohio; and Greenbelt, Maryland
City Functional Movement 1940s, Emphasis on functionalism and administrative efficiency
Synoptic Rationality Planning (1) Goal-setting (2) Identification of policy alternatives (3) Evaluation of means against ends (4) Implementation of the preferred alternative b. Multiple iterations, feedback loops and sub-processes
Incremental Planning Lindblom - people make their plans and decisions in an incremental manner, accomplishing their goals through a series of successive, limited comparisons.
Transactive Planning 1973, Friedmann, e planner meets with individuals in the community to discuss issues and help develop a plan. Through a process of "mutual learning," the planner shares technical knowledge, while the citizens provide community knowledge.
Advocacy Planning 1960s, Paul Davidoff, The advocacy planner should be responsible for a particular interest group in the community and create plans that express that group's values and objectives.
Radical Planning 1987, Friedmann, nvolves taking power away from the government and giving it to the people. In this process, citizens get together and develop their own plans.
Rational Planning 1950's Set Goals Determine Alternatives Evaluate the Alternatives Choose an Alternative Implement the Alternative Evaluate
Radiant City 1920s, Le Corbusier, a linear city based upon the abstract shape of the human body with head, spine, arms and legs. The design maintained the idea of high-rise housing blocks, free circulation and abundant green spaces proposed in his earlier work
Concentric Ring Theory 1925, Edward Burgess, land use is based on the distance from the downtown, CBD, industrial, transition, working homes, high class residential
Broad Acre City 1932, Frank Lloyd Wright, each home situated on an acre or more, each house has auto, new suburban utopia
Central Place Theory 1933, Christaller, there is a minimum market threshold to bring a firm to a city and there is a maximum range people are willing to travel to receive goods and services.
Sector Theory 1930, Homer Hoyt, land uses vary based on transportation routes. The city, as a result, was a series of sectors radiating out from the center of the city.
Multiple Nuclei Theory 1945, Harris and Ullman, argued that cities develop a series of specific land use nuclei. A land use nucleus is formed because of accessibility to natural resources, clustering of similar uses, land prices, and the repelling power of land uses.
Bid Rent Theory 1960, William Alonso, a geographical economic theory that refers to how the price and demand for real estate change as the distance from the central business district (CBD) increases. It states that different land users will compete with one another for
Urban Realm 1964, Vance, some of the functions int he CBD can be moved to the suburbs therefore diminishes the importance of the CBD. Each realm is independent from another like little cities but they connect with each other to create a huge urban city
New Urbanism 1982, Andres Duany, Seaside Florida
Edge City 1991, Joel Garreau, edge city is a distinct place that has at least 5 mil sq ft of office, 600,000 sq ft of retail and more jobs than bedrooms
Smart Growth 1990s, Seeks to solve problems created by low density residential development such as threatened farmland and open space, increased public service costs, disinvestment in central cities, congestion, and environmental degradation
Ordinance of 1785 Provided for the rectangular land survey and settlement of the Old North West
Township 36 square miles of territory, 36 sections each section is 640 acres & 1 square mile
HUD Formed in 1965 through the Housin
CDBG 1974 grant program provides flexibility for communities to use federal funds for the improvement of blighted areas, created Section 8 housing voucher program
Housing Act of 1934 It established the Federal Housing Administration with the purpose of insuring home mortgages.
Housing Act of 1937 provided $500 million in home loans for the development of low-cost housing. This Act tied slum clearance to public housing.
Housing Act of 1949 the first comprehensive housing legislation passed in the U.S. The Act called for the construction of 800,000 new housing units and emphasized slum clearance.
Housing Act of 1954 called for slum prevention and urban renewal. Additionally, the Act provided funding for planning for cities under 25,000 population. The 701 funds were later expanded to allow for statewide, interstate, and regional planning. largest impetus for comp pln
Fair Housing Act (Civil Rights Act 1968) the first federal law prohibiting discrimination between sex, race, national origin, religion and familial status.
ISTEA Required coordination between states and metropolitan areas for air quality standards. Created the Transportation Enhancements program for community wide impacts of transportation & earmarked funds for scenic byways and historic preservation, bike & pedes
MAP-21 (Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century) - consolidated the number of funding programs, reformed environmental review process to speed up project development, more projects categorically excluded from review, four-year review deadline enforced, funding for bike-ped reduced and consolidated into
EPA Created in 1970, purpose to enforce environmental laws like the Clean Air Act and the Clean Water Act
NEPA (1970) requires an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIS) for federally funded actions that have the potential to significantly impact the environment. It acknowledged the importance of an open and public decision-making process.
Clean Air Act (1970) Implemented to protect public health and welfare by limiting air pollution emissions and exposure to ambient air pollutants. It created National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) and required non-attainment areas to develop strategies to achieve compl
Clean Water Act (1972) regulated water quality of lakes and rivers by using a permit process. It set wastewater standards for industry and water quality standards for surface water contamination. It introduced a permit system for regulating point sources of pollution.
RLUIPA declares that no government may implement land use regulation in a manner that imposes a substantial burden on the religious assembly or institution unless the government demonstrates that imposition of burden both is in furtherance of compelling governm
Dillon's Rule narrowly defines the power of local governments, rights of cities are only those that have been specifically authorized by the state
Home Rule Local governments have all functions not prohibited/preempted by State or Federal law, cities have the right to develop their own regulations, except where the state has specifically stated otherwise.
Erie Canal Completed in 1825
Transcontinental Railroad 1869 Union Pacific and Central Pacific joined at Promontory Point Utah
1st US city with a subway Boston 1897
1901 Plan for Washington D.C. City Beautiful Movement
1st historic preservation commission Veiux Carre, New Orleans LA in 1921
1st off street parking regulations Columbus OH 1923
1st historic preservation ordinance Charleston SC 1931
1st urban growth boundary Lexington KY 1958
1st state to institute statewide zoning Hawaii 1961
AICP and ASPO Joined to form APA in 1978
Largest concrete structure in the US Grand Coulee Dam 1941
Zip code Zone Improvement Plan Code
1 acre 43560 square feet
5280 feet 1 mile
2.47 acres 1 hectacre
640 acres 1 square mile
USGS map scale 1:24,000
Delphi Method Used to develop a consensus between two or more groups that are in conflict; the views of each group are presented in successive rounds of argument and counterargument, with the rounds gradually working towards a consensu
3 C's of Public Engagement coalition building, consensus building, conflict resolution
1964 Economic Opportunity Act Part of Johnson's War on Poverty/Great Society, Head Start program remains
The Ladder of Citizen Participation Non participation + Tokensim + Citizen Power Manipulation, Therapy, Informing, Consultation, Placation, Partnership, Delegated Power, Citizen Control
Tennessee Valley Authority Established in 1933 to convert two WWI munitions factories and one hydroelectric plant into a regional power authority and a factory producing fertilizer. First example of multi-state planning for power and flood control.
Hoover Dam 1936, on border of NV & AZ, Apportioned the waters of the Colorado River between AZ, CA, CO, NV, NM, UT, and WY.
Chesapeake Bay Agreement - 1983 Signed by four states (now 7 total) to address and plan for pollution affecting the Ches. Bay watershed.
Port Authority of NY and NJ - 1921 Created to run most regional transportation infrastructure (bridges, tunnels, airports, seaports) within NY-NJ Port District along Hudson and East Rivers  In charge World Trade Center plaza rebuilding
Appalachian Regional Commission - 1963 Federal, state and local government partnership initially formed in 1963 to create economic development in Appalachia  420 counties, 13 states and 8 independent cities
Stats with statewide planning and/or smart growth laws Hawaii, Maryland, Florida, and Tennessee
Coastal Zone Management Act 1972 Created a voluntary Coastal Management Program to meet established federal standards.
MPOs - Metropolitan Organizations 1962 Federal Highway Act required their formation, Bureau of Public Roads (FHA) required the creation of planning agencies that would be responsible for carrying out the required transportation planning processes
1996 Symposium on Neighborhood Collaborative Planning Neighborhoods are the strategic building blocks of overall community development. Neighborhood planning is often inconsistent and piecemeal.
ETJ - Extraterritorial Jurisdiction he ETJ is a distance outside of the city limits where the subdivision regulations apply. The distance is specified under state law and usually increases with population size.
FEMA 1979, Carter signed executive order created organization, centralize federal emergency functions., coordinates the federal government's role in preparing for, preventing, mitigating the effects of, responding to, and recovering from all domestic disasters
Disaster Mitigation Act of 2000 reinforces the importance of planning to lessen the potential effects of a natural hazard. States and local governments are required to prepare plans that identify likely risks.
National Incident Management System - NIMS prevent, protect against, respond to, recover from, and mitigate the effects of incidents, regardless of cause, size, location, or complexity, in order to reduce the loss of life and property and harm to the environment.
Incident Command System - ICS prevent, protect against, respond to, recover from, and mitigate the effects of incidents, regardless of cause, size, location, or complexity, in order to reduce the loss of life and property and harm to the environment.
National Response Framework - NRF establishes a single, comprehensive approach to domestic incident management. The NRF is used to prevent, prepare for, respond to, and recover from terrorist attacks, major disasters, and other emergencies
National Response Plan - NRP an all-discipline, all-hazards plan that establishes a single, comprehensive framework for the management of domestic incidents. It provides the structure and mechanisms for the coordination of response authorities
Location Quoitent defines base sector of study area, or the concentration of a given industry in a given place in comparison to the nation – used to tell the amount of export employment in an industry - >1 = exporting basic <1 = importing local
Economic Base Theory divide regional industries into two groups:  Basic or export sectors  Non-basic or local sectors
Shift Share Analysis a descriptive technique for analyzing sources of change in the regional economy by looking at national share, industry mix, and regional shift
National growth share what part of local job growth is due to growth in the national economy
Industry mix the effect of industry trends on local employment
Regional shift unique local factors relating to local employment growth or decline
1929 Regional Plan for New York City and Its Environs The plan focused on suburban development, highway construction, and suburban recreational facilities. Stein and Mumford were involved in the creation of the plan (Clarence Perry's neighborhood unit published)
National Historic Preservation Act 1966 passed primarily to acknowledge the importance of protecting our nation’s heritage from rampant federal development, Section 106 requires consider effects, created National Register
National Register of Historic Places the official list of our country's historic buildings, districts, sites, structures, and objects worthy of preservation, Run by National Park Service/DOI
Section 106 Process Iniate the process, determine undertaking, identify historic properties and National Register eligibility, assess adverse effects, resolve adverse effects
Tax Reform Act of 1986 enabled nonprofit housing organizations to raise housing construction funds by selling tax credits to investors and corporations. Tax credits must be used for new construction, rehabilitation or both.
5 Sections of AICP Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct 1. Principles to Which we Aspire 2. Code of Conduct 3. Advisory Rulings 4. Adjucation of Complaints of Misconduct 5. Discipline of Members
AICP COEPC Rules of Conduct 26, 8 conflict of interest, 7 accurate information, 4 code procedures
4 Potential Disciplinary Actions for Ethics complaint 1) confidential letter of admonition, 2) public reprimand, 3) suspension of AICP membership, or 4) expulsion from AICP
Mixed Scanning Planning Etzioni - recognizing the difference between policy-changing decisions and implementation decisions.Ex: a comprehensive plan would be created using the rational planning approach, while the implementation of the plan would use an incremental approach.
Norman Krumholz adopted equity planning in Cleveland during the 1970s and helped make the needs of low-income groups the highest priority.
Equity Planning 1970s, Krumholz, planners should work to redistribute power, resources, or participation away from the elite and toward the poor and working-class residents of the community.
Communicative Planning (modern) heory recognizes that planning operates within the realm of politics and that it contains a variety of stakeholder interests. - listen to people's views and assist in forging a consensus among different viewpoints.
Wacker's Manual of the Plan of Chicago - 1912 Walter Moody - first text book of formal instruction in city planning below the college level
Carrying out the City Plan Flavel Shurtleff, 1st major textbook on city planning
ACIP - American City Planning Institute - 1917 Frederick Law Olmsted Jr first president, renamed to AIP American Institute of Planners in 1939
ASPO - American Society of Planning Officials Founded in 1934
First Code of Ethics adopted/test administered in 1971 by the AIP/1977
Kevin Lynch/Image of the City 1960- book defines basic concepts within the city, nodes, edges, paths, etc.
Rachel Carson Silent Spring 1962 - book focuses on negative effects of pesticides on the environment
Harland Bartholomew first full-time municipally employed planner, St. Louis; developed many early comp plans, ran his own consulting firm
Louis Wirth authored Urbanism as a Way of Life (1938); argued for urbanism and claimed density of cities influences behaviors in city
James Howard Kunstler wrote the Geography of Nowhere, which provides a history of suburbia and urban development; leading proponent of new urbanism; recently wrote The Long Emergency, dealing with declining oil production and the end of industrialized societ
William Whyte promoted use of environmental psychology and sociology in urban design; wrote Social Life of Small Urban Spaces in 1980; coined the term “greenway” in his book the Last Landscape; pioneer on conservation easements
Henry Wright designed Radburn, NJ ("town in which people could live peacefully with the automobile-or rather in spite of it")
John Muir Founded the Sierra Club in 1892, wilderness preservation
Gifford Pinchot First professionally trained forester in the US, first director of the US Forest Service (1905), leader of the conservation movement
Cost-benefit analysis A management study that evaluates the benefits of a solution (including programmatic & personnel) costs to the value/benefit of the outcome
Fiscal Impact Analysis evaluates revenues, expenditures, land values and characterestics of a new development or land use change, estimates the difference between the costs of providing services and the revenues that will be generated
Zero Based Budgeting Budget process which assumes that the baseline budget each fiscal cycle is zero, decision packages created
WBS (management) Work Breakdown Structure - form of Gantt chart by which multi tasks are broken down and identified, The length of each taskbar corresponds to the duration of each task. The relationship usually shows dependency - 1 task must be completed before next
Gantt chart Schematic that shows the steps/taks of a project on a parrelle, horizontal model
PERT Program Evaluation & ReviewTechnique - variable task times, graphically illustrates the interrelationships of project task
CPM Critical Path Method, fixed task times, analysis results in a "critical path” through the project tasks, longest pathway is the critical patphway
Average Per Capita Method (FIA) It divides the total local budget by the existing population in a city to determine the average per capita cost for the jurisdiction. The result is multiplied by the expected new population associated with the new development.
Adjusted Per Capita Method (FIA) It divides the total local budget by the existing population in a city to determine the average per capita cost for the jurisdiction. The result is multiplied by the expected new population associated with the new development - adjusted base don assumptio
Disaggregated Per Capita Method (FIA) estimates the costs and revenues based on major land uses; for example, the cost of servicing a shopping center versus an apartment complex
Dynamic Method (FIA) pplies statistical analysis to time-series data from a jurisdiction. This method determines, for example, how much sales tax revenue is generated per capita from a grocery store and applies this to the new development.
Basic Steps of Comprehensive Plan Making Identify stakeholders Define goals Gather information and analysis Develop alternatives Select an alternative
Tribal Planning engages tribal government leaders, residents, and businesses in preparing plans and administering planning processes in support of the tribal community. Tribal governments develop comprehensive plans, much like in cities.
Tribal Transportation Process USDOT supports process that allows federal agencies to consult with Tribes on transportation policy, regulation, and projects
Subdivision division of land into two or more parcels, sites, or lots, for the purpose of transfer of ownership, development, or other forms of valuable interest. This definition varies from state to state and may include minimum acreage requirements.
Plat is a map of a tract or parcel of land.
Replat allows for lots to be subdivided further or added back together.
Amending Plat corrects errors or adds additional information to a plat.
Vacating Plat allows for a plat to be terminated prior to the selling of any lots.
Preliminary Plat a to-scale mechanical drawing with precise topography and prescribed intervals showing the calculated location of all lots, streets, drainage patterns, facilities, and proposed dedications.
Final Plat the approved preliminary plat with all bearing, monuments, curves, and notations, together with all dedications, easement, and approvals.
Performance Bonds an agreement between the property owner & the community to ensure that the final plat is built as shown within a certain time period. govt uses $ to construct improvements if developer does not meet requirements or bond is released
Dedication gifts of land for public purposes, such as roads, parks, and utilities, I.e. easements
Impact fee typically charged for off-site infrastructure that is needed to provide service to a development, such as a water or a sewer main.
Subdivision bonuses the extension of development benefits beyond those normally offered in exchange for enhancements such as affordable housing, cluster housing, and open space preservation.
Land Based Classification System Identifies land use across 5 dimensions (Activity, Function, Structure Type, Site Development Character, Ownership), each category has 9 color values
Euclidean Zoning It places the most protective restrictions on residential land uses less on commercial uses, and virtually none on industrial uses. This concept places the most restrictive zoning category, single-family residential, at the top of the pyramid.
Cumulative Zoning each successive zoning district allows all the uses from the previous zones:
Modified cumulative zoning istricts are typically cumulative by type of land use. For example, a multi-family district would allow both single-family homes and multi-family housing. However, the industrial district would not allow residential uses.
Nonconforming Use a property use that existed prior to the adoption of district regulations and is allowed to continue under the "grandfather clause."
Overlay Zone An overlay district or zone is a set of additional restrictions that are placed over the top of an existing zone. Two common overlays are for airports and historic preservation.
Variance (zoning) change in the terms of the zoning regulations due to economic or physical hardship. There are two types of variances: the use variance and the area variance.
Big Box Retail generally has 50,000 or more square feet in a large box (most department stores are over 100,000 square feet
Concentrated animal feeding operations include the practice of raising farm animals indoors and in high volumes. Local governments may be limited in their ability to regulate concentrated animal feeding operations because of Right-to-Farm laws
Right to Farm Laws attempts to preserve agricultural practices and make farming more viable. Right to farm laws deny nuisance lawsuits against farmers, even if their agricultural practices harm or bother adjacent property owners -aim to minimize the threat to normal farming
Floor Area Ratio (FAR) s the ratio of a building's total floor area (gross) to the size of the piece of land upon which it is built. FAR is most frequently used in downtown areas to help control for light and air.
Maximum parking standards an alternative to the conventional minimum parking standards that most communities have. Maximum parking standards cap the amount of parking that a property owner or business can provide
McMansion a term that describes large houses that are mass produced and have perceived negative impacts on the community, sometimes because they are out of scale with surrounding homes
Teardown/Sscrape off a term that refers to the demolition of a home for the purposes of building a larger home on the same lot. This type of development frequently occurs in large cities and in neighborhoods convenient to employment centers
Smart Growth rovides economic benefits "for individuals, for neighborhoods, for communities, for developers, for land owners, and for the economy as a whole."
Sustainable Development defined as balancing the fulfillment of human needs with the protection of the natural environment so that the present and future population's needs can be met. Sustainability includes environmental, social, and economic components
Triple bottom Line irst coined in 1994 by John Elkington. His argument was that companies should be preparing three different bottom lines: one for corporate profit, one for people, and one for the planet.
Carrying Capacity a biological concept indicating the maximum population size of a species that could be sustained in perpetuity within the environment, given the availability of food, water, habitat, etc - discuss the max population and employment that could be carried
Trip Generaetion eals with the number of trips that a particular site is likely to generate. Thus, it is a byproduct of land use and intensity of use, factors which "induce" people to travel.
Origin-Destination Survey otorists within the cordon area can then be sampled and asked questions on where they are coming from (address or point of origin) and where they are going (destination) - can include socioeconomic characteristics
Cross-tabulation models allow for estimates of trip generation rates based on land use type, purpose, or socioeconomic characteristics
Typical Trip Generation Rates 11 daily trip ends for every 1,000 square feet of general office space 9.6 daily trip ends per single family residential dwelling 6.6 daily trip ends per apartment unit 43 daily trip ends per 1,000 square feet of shopping center space 7 daily trip ends
Trip End Refers to the origin or destination point of a journey
Trip Distribution xamines where people are going. A region or area is often divided into traffic zones. Trip distribution information generally provides information on how many trips are made between each zone and every other zone.
Gravity Model an be used to provide trip estimates based on the proportional attractiveness of the zone (the "gravitational pull") and inversely proportional to the trip length.
Modal Split deals with how people get to where they want to go, and the form of transportation that they use. By having information on the number of people using cars, mass transit (bus, train, etc.), bicycles, or walking, planners are able to estimate how many vehic
AADT Average Daily Annual Traffic = amount of traffic on a roadway in a 24 hour period, averaged over a year
Peak Hour Volume Hourly traffic during the peak period
Seasonal Hour Volume Peak hour volume during different seasons
Design Hour Volume the capacity of the roadway to handle traffic
Traffic Assignment trip assignment, allows us to use network models to predict the distribution of traffic for each roadway (the routes that will be used), by the hour. Peak volumes can then be compared with DHV to see where congestion is going to be
VMT (Vehicle Miles Traveled) Vehicle Miles Traveled - function of many factors, including topography, population density, travel distances between home and other daily destinations (such as work, shopping, and recreation), and the availability of mass transit
Three steps of the statistical process Collect data, describe and summarize the distribution of values, interpret by means of inferential statistics and modeling
Nominal Data lassified into mutually exclusive groups or categories and lack intrinsic order. A zoning classification, social security number, and sex are examples of nominal data.
Ordinal Data ordered categories implying a ranking of the observations.Examples of ordinal data are letter grades, suitability for development, and response scales on a survey (e.g., 1 through 5).
Interval Data ata that has an ordered relationship where the difference between the scales has a meaningful interpretation. The typical example of interval data is temperature
Ratio Data gold standard of measurement, where both absolute and relative differences have a meaning. The classic example of ratio data is a distance measure
Continuous variables an take an infinite number of values, both positive and negative, and with as fine a degree of precision as desired. Most measurements in the physical sciences yield continuous variables.
Discrete variables can only take on a finite number of distinct values. An example is the count of the number of events, such as the number of accidents per month - cannot be negative
Binary/dichotomous variables can only take on two values, typically coded as 0 and 1.
Population totality of some entity
Sample subset of the population
Descriptive Statistics describe the characteristics of the distribution of values in a population or in a sample
Inferential Statistics se probability theory to determine characteristics of a population based on observations made on a sample from that population. We infer things about the population based on what is observed in the sample.
Distribution overall shape of all observed data. It can be listed as an ordered table, or graphically represented by a histogram or density plot.
Central tendency a typical or representative value for distribution of observed values. (mean, median, mode)
Dispersion How distribution values are spread around the central tendency
Symmetry is an attribute used to describe the shape of a data distribution.
Skewness If the skewness of S is zero then the distribution represented by S is perfectly symmetric. If the skewness is negative, then the distribution is skewed to the left, while if the skew is positive then the distribution is skewed to the right
Kurtosis provides a measurement about the extremities (i.e. tails) of the distribution of data, and therefore provides an indication of the presence of outliers.
Normal/Gaussian Distribution (Bell Curve) this distribution is symmetric and has the additional property that the spread around the mean can be related to the proportion of observations. 95% of the observations that follow a normal distribution are within 2 standard deviations from the mean
Variance (stats) a measure of how spread out a distribution is. It is computed as the average squared deviation of each number from its mean.
Standard Deviation square root of the variance.
Coefficient of Variation measures the relative dispersion from the mean by taking the standard deviation and dividing by the mean
Z-Score the number of standard deviations from the mean a data point is. But more technically it's a measure of how many standard deviations below or above the population mean a raw score is
Inter-quarterly Range is a measure of variability, based on dividing a data set into quartiles. Quartiles divide a rank-ordered data set into four equal parts.
hypothesis test distinguish between the null hypothesis (H0), i.e., the point of departure or reference, and the alternative hypothesis (H1), or the research hypothesis one wants to find support for by rejecting the null hypothesis
Linear Method uses the change in population (increase or decline) over a period of time and extrapolates this change to the future, in a linear fashion (i.e. grows by 1,000 people every year)
Exponential and Modified Exponential Method uses the rate of growth (or decline), i.e., the percentage change in population over a period of time to estimate the current or future population - percent change extrapolated into the future. Modified = assumes at some point growth stops
Symptomatic Method uses any available data indirectly related the population size, such as housing starts, or new drivers licenses.
Step-Down Ratio Method uses the ratio of the population in a city and a county (or a larger geographical unit) at a known point in time, such as the decennial Census.
Distributed Housing Unit Method uses the Census Bureau data for the number of housing units, which is then multiplied by the occupancy rate and persons per household.
Cohort Survival Method uses the current population plus natural increase (births less deaths) and net migration (in-migration less out-migration) to calculate a future population. The population is calculated for men and women in specific age groups.
Input-Output Analysis a quantitative method that links suppliers and purchasers to determine the economic output of a region, identifies primary suppliers, intermediate suppliers, intermediate purchasers, and final purchasers
North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) sed by Federal statistical agencies in classifying business establishments for the purpose of collecting, analyzing, and publishing statistical data about the U.S. economy, 6 digit code distinguishes industries
2010 Decennial Census of Population Changes from Prior years Discontinuation of the long form, To avoid undercounting, the Census Bureau enlisted thousands of groups such as churches, charities, and other organizations to promote the importance of participating in the count
2000 Decennial Census of Population 17% of households received the long form, 83% of households received the short form. The 2000 Census short form was the "shortest" since 1820, or the first time allowed the respondents to select more than one race that they identify as
Urbanized Area an urban nucleus of 50,000 or more people, they must have a core with a population density of 1,000 persons per square mile and may contain adjoining territory with at least 500 persons per square mile
Urban Cluster have at least 2,500 but less than 50,000 persons and a population density of 1,000 persons per square mile
Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) includes at least one city with 50,000 or more inhabitants, or an urbanized area (of at least 50,000 inhabitants), and a total metropolitan population of at least 100,000
Micropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) has a population of more than 10,000 people and less than 50,000 people. This includes a central county and adjacent counties that have a high degree of social and economic integration as measured by commuting.
Census Designated Places (CDP) the equivalent of an incorporated place for data purposes. This is for settled concentrations of population that are not incorporated.
Consolidated MSA (CMSA) made up of several PMSA's. An example is the Dallas-Fort Worth Consolidated Metropolitan Area. Dallas and Fort Worth are each primary metropolitan statistical areas.
Core Based Statistical Area (CBSA) areas where there is a core area with at least 10,000 people that when combined with other adjacent communities is socially and economically integrated
Megalopolis Jean Gottman,areas with more than 10 million people.
Census Tract typically has a population between 2,000 and 8,000 people. It is the smallest area where all information is released. (ideal number is 4,000)
Census Block mallest level at which the Census data is collected. There are typically 400 housing units per block.
Census Block Group Group of census blocks
Minor Civil Division (MCD) a unit only used in 29 states and usually corresponds to a municipality.
Census County Division used in the 21 states that do not have MCD's.
Tribal Designated Statistical Area a unit drawn by tribes that do not have a recognized land area. These are defined independently of the standard county-based census delineations.
Threshold Population a term that is under a number of government programs to determine program eligibility
Fastest growing states Nevada (35%), Arizona (25%), and Utah (24%)
American Community Survey (ACS) replaces the long form in the decennial Census, takes a sample of the population and projects the findings to the population as a whole. Survey rotates annually so that no household receives the survey more than once every five years
Baby Boomers People born in the United States between 1946 and 1964 are known as Baby Boomers
Generation X hese people were born between 1965 and 1976, which was a period of low birth rates.
Generation Y (aka Echo Boom or Millenials) These are the children of the baby boomers. These people were born between approximately 1977 and 2000. The exact years of this generation vary depending on the source. These are generally children born in the 1980s and 1990s.
Generation Z These are the children born after 2000.
TIGER he acronym for Topographically Integrated Geographical Encoding and Referencing map, which is used for Census data. A TIGER map includes streets, railroads, zip codes, and landmarks.
Digital Aerial Photography Digital aerial photography has allowed for increased accuracy to the 0.5-foot resolution
Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) how digital data about the elevation of the earth's surface as it varies across communities allows planners to analyze and map it.
Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) s a new technology using a laser, instead of radio waves, that is mounted in an airplane to provide detailed topographic information.
UrbanSim simulation software program that models planning and urban development.
CommunityViz is an ESRI software environment that allows agencies to analyze land use scenarios and create 3D images. -
Urban Footprint developed by Peter Calthorpe and Associates, uses a library of place types, block types, and building types to support interactive scenario building.
design charrette an intensive collaborative effort that brings together citizens, stakeholders, and staff to develop a detailed design plan for a specific area, may be held over one or more days
Delphi Method a structured process of public participation with the intent of coming to a consensus decision, A panel of selected, informed citizens and stakeholders are asked to complete a series of questionnaires.
Nominal Group Technique group process involving problem identification, solution generation, and decision making that can be used for groups of any size that want to come to a decision by vote.
Facilitation uses a person who does not have a direct stake in the outcome of a meeting to help groups that disagree work together to solve complex problems and come to a consensus.
Mediation a method in which a neutral third party facilitates discussion in a structured multi-stage process to help parties reach a satisfactory agreement. The mediator assists the parties in identifying and articulating their interests and priorities
Coffee Klatch Small meetings within neighborhood usually at a person’s home, Relaxed setting is conducive to eff ective dialogue Maximizes two-way communication
Visioning a process whereby citizens attend a series of meetings that provide the opportunity for them to offer input on how the community could be in the future- focus is on the what the community wants to be rather than looking at existing conditions
US Geological Survey Scale 1:24,000
Slope 0-0.5% = no drainage, not suited for development; 0.5-1% = no problems, ideal for all types of development; 1-3% = slight problems for large commercial areas; acceptable for residential; 3-5% = major problems for commercial/industrial/large scale resid
Four Sections of EIS Introduction (Purpose & Need), Description of Affected Environment, Range of Alternatives (heart of EIS), analysis of environmental impact of each alternative
Five Topics Addressed by EIS Probable impact, adverse environmental affects that can't be avoided, alternatives, relationship to local short term use and long term maintenance, any irreversible and irretrievable commitments of resources involved
Cost Benefit Analysis estimates the total monetary value of the benefits and costs to the community of a project(s) to determine whether they should be undertaken.
Cost-effectiveness analysis a method for selecting among competing projects when resources are limited, was developed by the military, cost-effectiveness ratio is the CE Ratio = (cost of new strategy - cost of current practice)/(effect of new strategy - effect of current practice)
Net Present Value shows the net monetary value of a project, discounted to today's present value. For example, if the net present value of a proposed hockey arena is > zero then one can conclude that the monetary benefit of the hockey arena outweighs its monetary costs
internal rate of return a metric used in capital budgeting to estimate the profitability of potential investments. Internal rate of return is a discount rate that makes the net present value (NPV) of all cash flows from a particular project equal to zero
Goals Achievement Matrix a project evaluation matrix that includes competing projects in rows and the evaluation criteria in columns. The evaluation criteria are based on the various stakeholder groups that may be impacted by the costs or that may receive benefits.
Linear programming a project management method that attempts to find the optimum design solution for a project. This system takes a set of decision variables within constraints and comes up with an optimum design solution.
PERT Steps Identify activities/milestones, determine proper sequence, construct network diagram, determine critical path, update the PERT chart as the project progresses
Operating budget includes everyday expenditures of an organization, such as supplies, personnel, and maintenance of office space.
Capital budget includes long-term purchases, such as a new building, recreation center, water main, or major equipment. A capital budget is a one-year budget for capital expenditures, while a Capital Improvements Program (CIP) is a longer range (5-7 year)
Capital Improvements Program a longer range (5-7 year) look at the capital needs of a community. A CIP includes project descriptions, estimated costs, construction timelines, and sources of funding.
Line-item Budgeting the emphasis is on projecting the budget for the next year while adding in inflationary costs. The advantage of this method is that it does not require any evaluation of existing services, and it is easy to prepare and justify, short-term focus,
Planning, Programming, Budgeting Systems (PPBS) focused on planning through accomplishing goals set by a department. The advantage of this method is that it helps departments place their programs in perspective and evaluate efforts and accomplishments.
PPBS Elements Budget organized by program area, long range planning of goals and required resources, policy analysis, cost benefit analysis and program evaluation
Zero-Base Budgeting (ZBB) requires a department to consider every aspect of its operation and concentrate on why it does things the way it does
ZBB Elements Efficiency and effectiveness of programs evaluated on regular basis, decision packages prepared for each program w. low medium and high funding, decision packages ranked
Performance-based budget focused on linking funding to performance measures. For example, funding could be tied to the amount of time it takes to process plat applications or building permits. Meeting performance goals results in funding increases.
Performance based budget elements Traditional function/object budget, performance info on workload, productivity, outputs and outcomes, performance and spending linked through cost analysis + program eval
Pay-As-You-Go uses current funds to pay for capital improvement projects;
Reserve Funds ones that have been saved for the purchase of future capital improvements;
General Obligation Bonds voter-approved bonds for capital improvements. GO Bonds use the tax revenue of the government to pay back the debt;
Revenue Bonds use a fixed source of revenue to pay back the debt. For example, revenue bonds could be issued to pay for a new water main. The debt would be paid back through the water use fees.
Tax Increment Financing (TIF) allows a designated area to have tax revenue increases used for capital improvements in that area, The designated area receives targeted investment, such as infrastructure improvements which should enable redevelopment and reinvestment in the area. The in
Special Assessments allows a particular group of people to assess the cost of a public improvement.
Lease-purchase allows a government to "rent-to-own.” The benefit is that the government does not have to borrow money to finance the acquisition of a major capital improvement.
Grants allow for all or a portion of the cost of a public facility to be paid for by someone other than the local government. Grants are available from all levels of government, the private sector, and foundations
Progressive Taxes The tax rate increases as income rises. For example, the federal income tax system taxes those with high incomes a higher tax rate than those with low incomes;
Proportional Taxes The tax rate is the same regardless of income. For example, a property tax rate is the same regardless of the price of your home.
Regressive Taxes The tax rate decreases as income rises
Criteria for Implementing a Tax Fairness, Certainty, Convenience, Efficiency, Productivity, Neutrality
Social Justice "equal access to wealth, opportunities, and privileges within a society." In planning, social justice is about people being able to realize their potential in the communities in which they live
Horizontal/flat Organization few or no levels of management between management and staff level employees. Employees are less supervised and have increased involvement in the decision-making process.
Vertical or hierarchical Organization like a pyramid. Every employee is subordinate to someone else within the organization, except the very top level (the CEO, who may be responsible to a board or an elected body)-employees will have a clear sense of level of responsibility is, large orgs
Matrix Organization encourage interdisciplinary approaches to problem-solving. However, they are difficult to manage and can be ineffective for large organization
Eight elements of Strategic Plan Analyze needs, identify objectives, SWOT, stakeholders, develop & evaluate alternatives, identify role of city, develop funding policy, evaluate performance
Smart Cities ocuses on the integration of ICT and the Internet of Things (IoT) -- devices that use the internet to support the delivery of public services and the livability of communities.
First land use zoning restrictions on the location of noxious uses San Francisco, 1867
First local civic center plan Cleveland, 1903
First major American city to apply City Beautiful principles San Francisco, 1906
First comprehensive zoning code New York City, 1916
First regional planning commission Los Angeles, 1922
Standard State Zoning Enabling Act Confirmed New York State’s authority to delegate police power to municipalities to enact local zoning ordinances. Drafted and approved under Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover.
First comprehensive plan Cincinnati, 1925
Standard City Planning Enabling Act The Act, outlined the powers of municipal planning commissions and required the adoption of a master plan by local governing bodies.
First state to introduce statewide zoning Hawaii, 1961
Charles Abrams created the New York Housing Authority. In 1965 he published The City is the Frontier, a book that was highly critical of U.S. federal policies surrounding slum clearance, urban renewal, and public housing.
Thomas Adams important planner during the Garden City movement. He was the secretary of the Garden City Association and became the first manager of Letchworth, U.
John Nolen designed Mariemont, Ohio and was a leading planner and landscape architect. He made substantial contributions including creating the first comprehensive plan in Florida, contributing to the park system in Madison, Wisconsin and designing Venice, Florida.
Paolo Soleri an architect responsible for designing Arcosanti, an experimental utopian city in Arizona focused on minimizing the impact of development on the natural environment.
Clarence Stein designed Sunnyside Gardens in Queens, NY, Radburn, NJ, and many other garden suburbs in the U.S. He was a major proponent of the garden city movement
Rexford Tugewell served as the head of the Resettlement Administration during the New Deal. He worked on the greenbelt cities program, which sought construction of new, self-sufficient cities
Sir Raymond Unwin an English town planner and designer of Letchworth.
Catherine Bauer Wurster a founder of American housing policy. She worked to reform policy that was related to housing and city planning. She wrote Modern Housing and was influential in the passage of the Housing Act of 1937.
Substantive due process about the validity of the rule itself, which in planning might include issues of aesthetics
Procedural due process about whether the rules were applied fairly, which in planning might include how an ordinance was applied
Equal protection often applied to exclusionary zoning.
Associated Home Builders of Greater East Bay v. City of Livermore; California Supreme Court (1976) The Court upheld temporary moratoriums on building permits.
Brandt Revocable Trust v United States (2013) Court found that the 1875 General Railroad ROW Act grants an easement for the railroad’s land. When railroad company abandons the land, it should be settled as an easement and if it is abandoned, it disappears and the land reverts to the previous owner.
Massachusetts v. EPA, Inc.; U.S. Supreme Court (2006) The Court held that the EPA must provide a reasonable justification for why it would not regulate greenhouse gases.
Rapanos v. United States; U.S. Supreme Court (2006) The Court found that the Army Corp of Engineers must determine whether there is a significant nexus between a wetland and a navigable waterway.
SD Warren v. Maine Board of Environmental Protection; U.S. Supreme Court (2006) The Court found that hydroelectric dams are subject to Section 401 of the Clean Water Act.
Texas Department of Housing and Community Affairs v. Inclusive Communities Project Inc.; US Supreme Court (2015) policies that even inadvertently relegate minorities to poor areas violate the Fair Housing Act.
Reed et al. v Town of Gilbert Arizona (2014) city cannot impose a more stringent restriction on signs directing the public to a meeting than on signs conveying other messages. The Court found the sign ordinance was not content neutral.
United States v. Gettysburg Electric Railway Company; U.S. Supreme Court (1896) The Court ruled that the acquisition of the national battlefield at Gettysburg served a valid public purpose. This was the first significant legal case dealing with historic preservation.
Fred French Investing Co. v. City of New York; New York Court of Appeals (1976) city had put in place a regulation that required the placement of a public park on private property, leaving no income producing use of the property. Court invalidated the regulation, but it was not ruled as a taking that should receive compensation -TDRS
Keystone Bituminous Coal Association v. DeBenedictis; U.S. Supreme Court (1987) Pennsylvania's Bituminous Mine Subsidence and Land Conservation Act prohibits coal mining that causes subsidence damage to pre-existing public buildings, dwellings, and cemeteries - court ruled no taking justified by public interests protected by the Act
FCC v. Florida Power Corporation; U.S. Supreme Court (1987) Public utilities challenged a federal statute that authorized the Federal Communications Commission to regulate rents charged by utilities to cable TV operators for the use of utility poles. The Court found that a taking had not occurred.
Suitum v. Tahoe Regional Planning Agency; U.S. Supreme Court (1997) answering the question of whether an owner must attempt to sell their development rights before claiming a regulatory taking of property without just compensation - no
City of Monterey v. Del Monte Dunes at Monterey Ltd.; U.S. Supreme Court (1999) upheld a jury award of $1.45 million in favor of the development based on the city's repeated denials of a development permit -epeated denials of permits deprived the owner of all economically viable use of the land
Palazzolo v. Rhode Island; U.S. Supreme Court (2001) The Supreme Court found that acquisition of title after the effective date of regulations does not bar regulatory taking claims.
Stop the Beach Renourishment Inc v. Florida Department of Environmental Protection (2009) The Supreme Court ruled that submerged lands that would be filled by the state for beach reclamation did not constitute a taking of property without just compensation (in violation of the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments).
Koontz v. St. John's River Water Management (2012) whether the government is liable for a taking when it denies a permit until a landowner agrees to dedicate land for public use. The Supreme Court found that there was no specific regulation requiring the dedication and mitigation work
Munn v. Illinois; U.S. Supreme Court (1876) a state law regulating pricing did not constitute a taking and violation of due process. The Court established the principle of public regulation of private businesses in the public interest.
City of Boerne v. Flores; U.S. Supreme Court (1997) challenged the Religious Freedom Restoration Act, SC rules that Texas prohibiting a church in a historic district from enlarging exceeded enforcement powers of 14th amendment
Local Street Standards 500 feet max tangents, use of stop signs/speed bumps, 150 feet between intersections, clear sight distance of 75 feet
Cul de sac standards 400-450 feet long and 40 foot turn around radius
Typical minimum street gradient 0.5%, in areas with cold winters max is 5% and 8% for mild winters
Highway Capacity Manual published by the Transportation Research Board, provides concepts, guidelines, and procedures for computing highway capacity and quality of service based on road type.
Levels of Service (LOS) range from A to F. A LOS of A means there is free-flowing traffic and F means heavy traffic congestion with severely reduced traffic speeds.
Federal Aid Highway Act 1944 designating 65,000 km of interstate highways. These highways, to be selected by state highway departments, authorized the highway system but did not provide funding.
Public Roads Administration (PRA) responsible for implementing the highway system, and in 1947 designated 60,640 km of interstate highways
Federal Highway Act 1953 authorized $25 million for the construction of interstate highways and another $175 million two years later.
Federal Highway Act 1956 $25 billion for the construction of 41,000 miles of interstate highways over a 20 year period. The funding came through the creation of the Highway Trust Fund which gathers money from excise taxes on new vehicles and sales tax on gasoline.
Federal Highway Act of 1962 created the federal mandate for urban transportation planning in the U.S, The Act called for a "continuing, comprehensive, and cooperative" (3 C's) planning process, required project in population of > 50k be based on urban transportation planning process
TEA-21 (Transportation Equity Act) mproved safety, protection of the natural environment and promoted efficiency and flexibility, provided enhancement grants for improvements to scenic quality, ped and bike paths, and preservation of historical highway facilities
Telecommunications Act 1996 ncrease competition in the communications business and to streamline the installation of cell phone towers. The act gave telecom companies pre-emption powers over local regulations as well as eminent domain powers over private property.
HOPE VI 1992 major HUD plan meant to revitalize public housing projects into mixed-income developments, established to replace the many large-scale, low quality public housing projects with smaller, higher quality mixed income projects
Low Income Housing Tax Credit 1986 enabled nonprofit housing organizations to raise housing construction funds by selling tax credits to investors and corporations. Tax credits must be used for new construction, rehabilitation or both.
CERCLA (Superfund) 1980 reated to protect people, families, communities and others from heavily contaminated toxic waste sites that have been abandoned. It created liability for persons discharging hazardous waste, taxed polluting industries in order to establish a trust fund fo
Community Reinvestment Act (CRA) 1977 seeks to address discrimination in loans made to individuals and businesses. It was put in place to stop widespread practice of redlining of urban, low income minority neighborhoods.
Safe, Accountable, Flexible, and Efficient Transportation Equity Act (SAFETEA) largest surface transportation allocation in US history, Highway Safety Improvement Program to keep up with repair and reconstruction of aging infrastructure
FAST Act 2015 the first federal law in over a decade to provide long-term funding certainty for surface transportation infrastructure planning and investment. The FAST Act authorizes $305 billion over fiscal years 2016 through 2020 for highway, highway and motor vehicl
Transportation Improvement Program (TIP_ lists all projects for which federal funds are anticipated, along with non-federally funded projects that are regionally significant. The TIP represents the transportation improvement priorities of the region and is required by federal law, multi-modal
Transportation Demand Management (TDM) offers planners another tool to reduce the negative consequences of development, most particularly increased traffic congestion and air pollution, while encouraging development where traffic gridlock can be avoided.
TDM Strategies Car Sharing Flextime Guaranteed Ride Home Public Transit Park-and-Ride HOV Lanes Telecommuting Commute Trip Reduction Transit Oriented Development
Transit Oriented Development (TOD) has a center with a rail or bus station, surrounded by medium to high-density development, and progressively lower-density spreading outwards. TOD neighborhoods typically have a diameter of one-quarter to one-half mile
Chicane a series of staggered curb extensions on alternating sides of the roadway. Motorists reduce their speed by having to maneuver along the roadway.
Choker a curb extension in the middle of a block, which narrows the street width to restrict the speed of traffic in each direction.
Full or partial closure does not allow traffic beyond a certain point in the roadway. For example, a partial closure could change the traffic from two-way to one-way at a point on the road.
Realigned intersections change the alignment of roadways near an intersection. This causes traffic to slow prior to entering the intersection
Roundabouts equire vehicles to circulate around a center island - useful on smaller streets. Traffic circles are appropriate for major streets.
Speed humps raised areas placed across a road and are 3 to 4 inches tall. They reduce traffic speed by causing uncomfortable driving conditions if the driver goes too fast.
Speed table larger than a speed hump. It has a flat-top and may have brick or another textured material on the flat surface. A speed table is long enough for the entire vehicle to rest on the flat section of the table.
Traffic circles raised landscape islands located at the center of an intersection and can vary in size. They are intended to move more traffic through, increasing efficiency, although they are also meant to reduce traffic speed.
Standard parking space 9 or 10 feet by 18 feet - 180 square feet
Peak Parking Demand the hour of the day when most parking is needed for a particular development.
Complete Street a safe, accessible, and convenient street that everyone can use regardless of age, ability or mode of transportation. This means that motorists, bicyclists, pedestrians, and transit riders have sufficient infrastructure for safe access.
Adequate public facilities ordinance (APFO) allows local governments to deny or delay new developments if the existing government services (water and sewer, roads, schools, fire, and police) cannot support it.
Concurrency the practice of requiring that infrastructure be in place and available at a specified level of service prior to allowing new development to occur
Daylighting (2 kinds) the practice of placing windows, or other transparent media, and reflective surfaces so that natural light provides effective internal illumination during the day OR enclosed drainage to open/natural system
Blue infrastructure efers to water-based infrastructure. This can include stormwater management, such as bioretention systems, swales, reservoirs, rain gardens, constructed wetlands, and other waterways.
Green infrastructure emphasizes the role of the natural environment in land use planning. A significant emphasis is on converting single-purpose gray stormwater infrastructure (piped drainage and water treatment systems) —to reducing and treating stormwater at its source
Safe Growth a term for building environments that are safe for current and future generations, protecting buildings, infrastructure and the natural environment from damag
Resilience efers to the ability of a community to return to its original form after it has been changed. Often resiliency is used to refer to a community’s ability to recover from a natural hazard, economic shock, or other major events.
Substantial Damage damage of any origin sustained by a structure whereby the cost restoring the structure to its before damage condition would equal or exceed 50 percent of the market value or replacement cost of the structure before the damage occurred
Substantial Improvement any reconstruction, rehabilitation addition, or other improvements of a structure, the cost of which equals or exceeds 50 percent of the market value of the structure before the start of construction of the improvement.
Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act constitutes the authority of the federal government, FEMA, to respond to a disaster
Stafford Act four components of a state hazard mitigation plan (Section 409) Evaluation of natural hazard, description and analysis of state policies & programs to mitigate hazards, goals and objectives and proposed strategies, method of implementation
Disaster Mitigation Act (2000) requires local governments to prepare and adopt hazard mitigation plans. The Disaster Mitigation Act of 2000 focuses on prevention.
National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) 1994 The Program's Community Rating System (CRS) is a voluntary incentive program that recognizes and encourages community floodplain management activities that exceed the minimum NFIP requirements
1950 Federal Disaster Relief Act gave the President authority to issue disaster declarations that allowed Federal agencies to provide direct assistance to State and local governments.
1966 Disaster Relief Act of 1966 update existing legislation and expand Federal assistance into the recovery arena
1968 National Flood Insurance Act Created the National Flood Insurance Program, currently administered by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA).
1969 Disaster Relief Act of 1969 allocated $150 million for assistance from the President's Disaster Relief Fund—the largest sum for any one year in history. Significant additional funds were spent on disaster assistance under other Federal programs.
1973 Flood Disaster Protection Act made the purchase of flood insurance mandatory for the protection of property located in Special Flood Hazard Areas.
1974 Disaster Relief Act of 1974 set a precedent for legislative disaster relief in the U.S., allowed for presidential declarations of disaster - replaced by Stafford
1977 Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act is a statute formulating a national policy to diminish the perils of earthquakes in the United States. The Act of Congress is a declaration for an earthquake prediction system, national earthquake hazards reduction program, and seismological research stud
First Earth Day April 22, 1970
Metropolitan Water District of Southern California created in 1927 in order to create the Colorado River Aqueduct. It was built between 1933 and 1941 and is owned and operated by the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California. It ran a water pipeline to Los Angeles.
Effluent Standards set restrictions on the discharge of pollutants into the environment. Effluent guidelines reduce the discharge of pollutants that have serious environmental impacts.
Point Source Pollution discharged directly from a specific site, such as a sewage treatment plant or an industrial pipe.
Non-point Source Pollution contaminated runoff from many sources
Potable Water safe to drink.
Aquifer one or more strata of rock or sediment that is saturated and sufficiently permeable to yield economically significant quantities of water to wells or springs.
Estuary where freshwater meets saltwater
Lagoon hallow body of water that is located alongside a coast.
Marsh a type of freshwater, brackish water or saltwater wetland found along rivers, ponds, lakes, and coasts. It does not accumulate appreciable peat deposits and is dominated by herbaceous vegetation.
Reservoir a pond, lake, tank, or basin that can be used for the storage and control of water, and can be either natural or man-made.
Surface Water includes rivers, lakes, oceans, ocean-like water bodies, and coastal tidal waters
Swamp a freshwater wetland that has spongy, muddy land and a lot of water.
Watershed a region drained by, or contributing water to, a surface water body.
Wetlands areas that are inundated or saturated by surface or groundwater at a frequency and duration sufficient to support vegetation typically adapted for life in saturated soil conditions.
Point Source Discharge Permit In order to discharge pollutants into the water, a Point Source Discharge Permit must be obtained from the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES).
Clean Air Act monitors six pollutants Ozone Particulate Matter Carbon Monoxide Nitrogen Dioxide Sulfur Dioxide Lead
Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) relates to air quality and requires that a project will not increase emissions above a specified PSD increment
Ambient Air Quality Standards maximum air contaminant concentrations allowed in the ambient air.
Environmental Assessment he finding of the EA determines whether an EIS is required. If the EA indicates that no significant impact is likely, then the agency can release a finding of no significant impact (FONSI) and carry on with the proposed action., otherwise EIS
The Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899 considered the oldest environmental law in the U.S.), prohibited the construction of any bridge, dam, dike, or causeway over any navigable waterway in the U.S. without Congressional approval.
The Water Pollution Control Act of 1948 allowed the Surgeon General of the Public Health Service, in cooperation with other governmental entities, to prepare a comprehensive program for eliminating or reducing the pollution of interstate waters and tributaries and improving the sanitary conditi
The Water Quality Act of 1965 established the Water Pollution Control Administration within the Department of the Interior. This was the first time water quality was treated as an environmental concern rather than a public health concern.
The Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 he amendments broadened the government's authority over water pollution and restructured the authority for water pollution under the Environmental Protection Agency, changed to regulate number of pollutants being discharged from particular point sources
The Endangered Species Act of 1973 provides protection of animal and plant species that the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service designates as threatened or endangered. This act was later amended in 1988.
The Public Utility Regulatory Policy Act (PURPA) of 1978 promotes alternative energy sources, energy efficiency, and reduced dependence on foreign oil. It also created a market for non-utility power producers and requires competition in the utility industry.
The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976 provided EPA with the ability to control hazardous waste from the "cradle-to-grave." This includes the generation, transportation, treatment, storage, and disposal of hazardous waste, as well as the management of non-hazardous solid waste
The Toxic Substances Control Act of 1976 provided EPA with responsibility for reporting, record-keeping and testing requirements, and restrictions relating to chemical substances and/or mixtures. Certain substances are generally excluded, including food, drugs, cosmetics, and pesticides.
Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) currently mandates that EPA regulate the use and sale of pesticides to protect human health and the environment.
Safe Drinking Water Act 1974 This law protects both the sources of drinking water and the end product.
Brownfields real property, the expansion, redevelopment, or reuse of which may be complicated by the presence or potential presence of a hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant. Cleaning up and reinvesting in these properties takes development pressures off of
Executive Order 12898 Clinton 1994 requires that federal agencies strive to make achieving environmental justice part of their mission by addressing the disproportionate adverse environmental and human health impacts of its policies, programs, and activities on minority and low-income popu
ROE (Report on the Environment Indicators) simple measures that track the state of the environment and human health over time. They are based primarily on measurements of physical or biological conditions within a clearly defined geographic area.
Nonrenewable Resources All fossil fuels, Coal, crude oil, and natural gas are all considered fossil fuels (formed from the buried remains of plants and animals that lived millions of years ago). Natural gas and methane gas (a naturally occurring byproduct of decaying plant and
Renewable energy cannot be exhausted and is constantly renewed. This includes sunlight, geothermal heat, wind, tides, water, and various forms of biomass.
Biomass energy uses organic material which is burned to create energy. Biomass is renewable organic matter such as wood or ethanol (derived almost exclusively from corn).
Hydroelectric power ypically associated with large dams. It uses falling water to produce power, which is moved through a turbine, causing it to spin. The spinning turbine is coupled with a generator, which produces energy.
Passive Solar Design mitigates the building's energy needs. The goal of passive design is to maximize the amount of direct sunlight available to each building
Solar photovoltaic (PV) systems use photovoltaic cell technology to capture radiant energy from the sun and create electricity. Photovoltaic cells are placed on panels that are then placed on rooftops or mounted on the ground.
R-Value thermal resistance (resistance to heat flow)The higher the R-value, the greater the insulation. A minimum R-value of 20 is recommended for residential use.
Enterprise zones (EZs) geographic areas in which companies can qualify for a variety of subsidies. The original intent of most EZ programs was to encourage businesses to stay, locate, or expand in depressed areas and thereby help to revitalize them
Context-Sensitive Design (CSD) efers to roadway standards and development practices that are flexible and sensitive to community values. The CSD allows design decisions to better balance economic, social and environmental objectives within the community.
A Form-based code a type of zoning code that regulates development to achieve a specific urban form. Form-based codes address the relationship between building facades and the public realm, the form and mass of buildings in relation to one another, and the scale and types
New Urbanism promotes mixed-income, walkable neighborhoods with a variety of architectural styles.
Transect Zones The six Transect Zones instead provide the basis for real neighborhood structure, which requires walkable streets, mixed use, transportation options, and housing diversity.
The 6 Transect Zones Natural, Rural, suburban, general urban, urban center, urban core
Areas under the normal distribution curve • 68 % is within one standard deviation of the mean. • 95% is within two standard deviations. • 99% is within three standard deviations.
In 2009, ___ percent of the population lived in multi-generational households based on ACS data 16.7
Judith Innes credited with coining the term "communicative planning" in her article Planning Theory’s Emerging Paradigm: Communicative Action and Interactive Practice.
Indian Reorganization Act
Inclusionary Zoning planning communities and developments that will provide housing to all income brackets. Inclusionary zoning ordinances often require any new housing construction to include a set percentage of affordable housing units.
Section 404 Clean Water Act establishes a program to regulate the discharge of dredged or fill material into waters of the United States, including wetlands.
When did large-scale aid programs begin 1930s
What is the annual rate of interest paid on a bond that a borrower pays to the bondholder coupon rate
Adverse possession a method of acquiring title to a property by possession for a period of time, based on statute.
Squatters Squatters rights are a specific form of adverse possession. Squatters typically do not have a right to the title of the property but cannot be removed without due process
Homesteading occurs when the land has no legal owner or is owned by the government, the government allows homesteading with an expectation that the person occupying the property will undertake specific actions to gain the title.
Adverse abandonment associated with acquiring land abandoned by a railroad
Federal definition of homelessness "lacks a fixed, regular, and adequate nighttime residence ... and has a primary night residency that is: a shelter or “a public or private place not designed for, or ordinarily used as, a regular sleeping accommodation for human beings. - doesnt fit rural
Biophilic design brings humans and nature together through sustainable strategies, which can include lighting, ventilation, access to water and natural elements.
New York State Tenement House Law 1901 an increase in the number of windows, plumbing on each floor, and outlawing Dumbbell Tenements.
Dumbbell Tenements the shape of the building footprint: the air shaft gives each tenement the narrow-waisted shape of a dumbbell, wide facing the street and backyard, narrowed in between to create the air corridor.
Fire ratings based on the distance to the nearest fire station and the availability of water to service a fire.
National marriage rate trends Declined from 72 percent in 1960 to 51 percent in 2010
Marriage rates between 1960-2000 only 20% of 18-29 year-olds were married in 2010, versus 59% in 1960
most common technique used to resolve conflict? feedback & compromise - most successful negotiators start off assuming collaborative (integrative) or win-win negotiation. Most good negotiators will try for a win-win or aim at a situation where both sides feel they won
Arbitration a form of dispute resolution. In arbitration an independent third party makes a judicial determination of a dispute. Arbitration is commonly used in union contract disputes.
Columbia, Maryland 4,000 acre master planned development was developed to provide jobs, recreation, shopping, health care, and a mix of housing at different price points
Drosscape an urban design framework that examines urbanized regions as the product of past economic and industrial processes. The concept developed by Alan Berger
nonsampling error relates to things that can happen that create unreliable data i.e. clarity of questions
most commonly used for traffic volume Average daily traffic (ADT) volume is the number of vehicles that travel on a road in a typical day.
op five US Census Bureau household surveys American Community Survey (ACS) American Housing Survey (AHS) Current Population Survey (CPS) Consumer Expenditure Survey (CE) National Health Interview Survey (NHIS)
Your AICP certification was revoked five years ago and you wish to seek reinstatement. How would you pursue reinstatement Submit a petition to the AICP Ethics Committee
Nominal Group Technique allows for brainstorming allowing for all members of a group to meaningfully participate. There are silent times allowing for idea generation followed by individual sharing of ideas.
2010 Censu - how many residential units owner occupied According to the 2010 Census, 65% of residential units are owner occupied
Browntowns cities with minority mayors
Grayfields former development sights that are not contaminated.
Satisficing Herbert Simon, a decision-making strategy that entails searching through the available alternatives until an acceptability threshold is met.
Affordability index The ratio of median housing price to median income shows how affordable or unaffordable a community may be. A ratio of greater than 2.5 would indicate that the housing may be unaffordable.
Local economy is made up of: I. Major employers II. Business conditions III. Employment growth
colocation facility I. A building that provides space which is leased by the rack, cabinet, cage or room II. A shared building that provides security, cooling, power, and bandwidth
Beneficiary assessments sed by the World Bank and other development organizations to make sure that project beneficiaries can provide insights on how a project will affect them, particularly the poor and those without political power.
Computer-Aided Negotiation allows for models to be quickly developed and allows participants to search for alternatives that can best meet interested parties needs.
Base map used as the starting point for many planning projects, shows the essential natural or man-determined features of an area
Bill Process After a bill has been voted on and approved by one side of the legislature, in this case, the House, then it would be referred to the Senate. The bill is then introduced by the Senate Speaker, referred to a committee, and then goes through the legislative
Detroit has approximately 70,000 vacant lots making up approximately 27% of the land area.
Two acres is sufficient to feed a household of four using the bio-intensive method of agriculture.
In order to improve the sample reliability, which of the following should you do? Use heterogenous population
The Change Interval term used to describe the amount of time between messages appearing on a digital sign.
Which president of the United States was responsible for founding America's first national wildlife refuge? Teddy Roosevelt
Connectivity Index The greater the degree of connectivity within a transportation network, the more efficient with that system be.
Empowerment zones highly distressed urban and rural communities that may be eligible for a combination of grants, tax credits for businesses, bonding authority and other benefits.
Traffic Analysis Zones the unit of geography most commonly used in conventional transportation planning models.
Volume to capacity ratios he maximum rate at which vehicles can pass through a given point in an hour under prevailing conditions; it is often estimated based on assumed values for saturation flow.
Samoan Circle designed to permit interaction that occurs in small groups but can be witnessed by a larger group
Appreciative Inquiry Summit 4-D Process of Discovery, Dream, Design and Destiny. Each organization has a unique set of relationships with in the company and among stakeholders.
Multiattribute Utility Analysis A tool for helping to deal with the tradeoffs and uncertainties inherent in decision-making where multiple, competing objectives are involved. Utility, or the value associated with a particular decision alternative, is measured as some function of the pe
Regression Analysis examine the influence of one or more independent variables on a dependent variable.
Rural Resettlement Act Roosevelt established the Rural Resettlement Administration with a goal of moving people off of agriculturally exhausted land and into greenbelt cities.
Quick Response Urban Travel Estimation Techniques and Transferable Parameters provides detailed descriptions of manual techniques for use in each aspect of travel demand estimation, i.e., trip generation, trip distribution, modal choice, auto occupancy, time-of-day distribution, Traffic assignment, capacity analysis, and developmen
Oregon’s Measure 37 allows property owners whose property value is reduced by environmental or other land use regulations to claim compensation from state or local government. If the government fails to compensate a claimant within two years of the claim, the law allows the
Coefficients of runoff dimensionless coefficient relating the amount of runoff to the amount of precipitation received. It is a larger value for areas with low infiltration and high runoff (pavement, steep gradient), and lower for permeable, well vegetated areas
Sewage Treatment Process three stages, called primary, secondary and tertiary treatment - heavy objects removed, remove dissolved and suspended biological matter, everything else + disinfection
Vested Rights an owner or developer is entitled to proceed in accordance with the prior zoning provision where there has been a substantial change of position, expenditures, or incurrence of obligations
Best Project management technique when time is a factor PERT
Sample selection bias The availability of data is influenced by the selection process
What technique can be used to find the optimum design solution on a project? Linear programming
best way to resolve a conflict in the community? consensus building
Section 8 provides funds to pay a portion of the rent for low-income households. The amount paid depends on household income.
HOME Investment Partnerships Program provides for the possibility of rental assistance - this is only possible where market conditions support such use
Jane Adams 1899 founded the Hull House in Chicago to provide housing to low-income families
Present/Future value formula FV = (1 + r)^y PV with the interest r in fractions of 100 (so 5% = 5/100) and y the number of years. The present value is thus PV = FV / (1 + r)^y
Development of a purchase of development rights program would best protect and preserve agricultural land.
Roads are typically sloped up to a half-inch per foot in order to provide positive drainage
Which city was home to the first Council of Government Detroit 1954
minimum R-value recommended for home insulation? R-20
A. Lacustrine B. Littoral C. Oligotrophic D. Palustrine A. Lake B. relating to seashore C. low in plant nutrients and containing abundant oxygen D. wetlands
You decide to propose a national heritage area in your region. Which of the following are appropriate actions? A National Heritage Area can be managed by a non-profit or a state government. A National Heritage Area is created by authorizing legislation of Congress based on an areas unique resources and the unique story it tells about the United States
Neo-traditional neighborhood development compact, mixed-income, walkable neighborhoods with access to public transit
Green infrastructure including preserves, corridors, and trailheads, among other types of green infrastructure
Best method to reduce vehicle emissions and reduce vehicle commute A parking cash-out program allows employees the option of cashing out their subsidized parking space and taking transit to work for free.
Federal Property Administration Act of 1949 Title VIII establishes guidelines for the use and disposal of urban lands including acquisition, and change of use
NAFTA North American Free Trade Agreement to lift tariffs (taxes on imports and exports) on virtually all goods traded among the US, Canada, and Mexico. NAFTA came into effect on January 1, 1994,
Which state has the highest number of endangered species Hawaii
First National Park Yellowstone
Attracting the creative class to cities - THree T's Talent Technology & Tolerance
Participatory Rural Appraisal group of techniques that allow for the provision and analysis of information by the public. These are typically highly visual including creation of maps or picture cards
Addressing changes in retail : financial incentives (tax breaks or low-interest loans) targeted to attract specific types of retail in certain areas; zoning restrictions on chain stores and big-box retailers; reduced mandates for ground-floor retail if such mandates are generating an
Environmental Justice Principles required in EIS' Identification of Minority or Low-Income Populations, Public Participation, Numeric Analysis (that agencies should consider relevant demographic, public health and industry data), and Alternatives and Mitigation
Planning for freight Multimodal freight planning typically happens at a national and state level, focusing on supporting adequate, convenient and safe access for goods movement - faciltate good movement and address negative impacts
Optimal Committee Size 9-15 Having at least 9 members ensures that all personality types are represented with a diversity of voices. A small committee can at times not bring a broad enough set of interests to the table
Resettlement Administrationdeveloped these three greenbelt towns I. Greenbelt, Maryland II. Greenhill, Ohio III. Greendale, Wisconsin
Net Operating Income (NOI) Gross Operating Income X (1 – the vacancy rate) – operating expenses
Plural Planning an underlying feature and aspect of advocacy planning., diversity tolerance, dialogue
Channelization straightens and increases the volume of water delivered to streams.
The City as a Growth Machine" Theory Logon and Mollotch -
What did the Homestead Act of 1862 do? allowed public lands to be sold for a nominal fee.
Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act established the Home Ownership Made Easy (HOME) program which provided matching federal funds to local government expenditures for low-income housing needs.
HOME program The HOME program provides block grants to local governments to increase the supply of affordable housing. The funds can be used to provide down payment assistance, construct or renovate affordable housing, acquire sites for affordable housing development,
Management by Objectives (MBO) Management By Objectives term was first popularized by Peter Drucker in 1954 in his book 'The Practice of Management'. Management by Objectives (MBO) is a process of agreeing upon objectives within an organization so that management and employees agree to
Appalachian Regional Commission covers West Virginia, Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland, Mississippi, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia. This is a planning, research, advocacy, and funding organization - example of multi-state
General fertility rate the number of live births per 1000 women between the ages of 15 and 44 years
Purpose of Zoning I. Protect property values II. Protect the health and safety of the community III. Protect the environment
Susan Fainstein, there are three elements of the "Just City" II. Democracy III. Equity IV. Diversity
Regional input-output modeling system provided by the Bureau of Economic Analysis provides employment multipliers based on the North American Industrial Classification System which can be used to calculate a location quotient
According to Aristotle, who is considered the pioneer of urban planning because of his plan for a city of 50,000 that addressed administrative structure, social structure, and land subdivision? Hippodamus
Which was a key concept of the 1916 New York City Zoning Ordinance? Established setback requirements
Easement by necessity used to allow a landlocked landowner to access a public roadway over another’s private land when no other relief is feasible.
FAST act 7 goals safety, infrastructure condition, congestion reduction, system reliability, freight movement & economic vitality, environmental sustainability and reduced project delivery delay
Effluent the discharge of pollutants into the environment in an untreated, partially treated, or completely treated state.
Smart Decline a strategy that can be used in shrinking cities to plan for decl
LOS B a stable flow, short delays and speed somewhat restricted.
characteristic of a traditional small town II. Open or agriculture at the edge of the town III. Limited traffic control devices IV. Civic uses near the center of the tow
T.J. Kent's components of an effective master plan as noted in The Urban General Plan I. Long range and general II. Comprehensive and adopted at one time with all elements integrated III. Focused on the physical development implications of socio-economic policies IV. Identified as the City Council's plan
key functions that taxes serve? I. Redistribution of income II. Generation of revenue to finance government
enterprise fund s an account that manages the revenues and expenditures of a self-sufficient activity such as a minor league baseball park, parking garage or zoo.
Visioning includes broad public participation and is based on key information about the community, such as the demographics of the community
US Department of Commerce 12 leading indicators to measure future economic activity interest rates, stock prices, oil prices, unemployment, housing starts, and consumer expectations are all part of the leading indicators
Turn-key project one where the developer provides a product that is ready to use to the buyer.
Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) program encourages the investment of private equity for developing affordable rental housing for low-income and very low-income households. It does this by awarding tax credits to taxpayers who invest in multifamily rental housing that serves these low-income hou
What is a "push analysis determines the sales capacity of a market area and if the introduction of a new business will generate additional customers.
albedo the portion of solar energy reflected from the Earth back into space, measuring the reflectivity of the earth's surface. Ice and snow has a high albedo with most of the sunlight
Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) SFHA are defined as the area that will be inundated by the flood event having a 1-percent chance of being equaled or exceeded in any given year. The 1-percent annual chance flood is also referred to as the base flood or 100-year flood.
principal cause of the increase in homelessness due to cuts in federal aid programs. The AFDC program was replaced with the Temporary Assistance to Needy Families. This program helps only a portion of the families that AFDC reached. The amount paid to persons receiving Supplemental Security Income (SS
SARAR: Self-esteem, Associative strength, Resourcefulness, Action planning, and Responsibility This is a series of techniques designed to be highly visual and accessible to those who cannot read or write. Examples, include pocket charts, three pile sorting, and picture stories with gaps.
Negotiation-based Land Value Recapture results in negotiating development agreements that tie increased densities to community amenity contributions. This is used in Vancouver and Santa Monica.
Chicago Metropolis 2020 a business-backed civic organization promoting healthy regional growth.
minor arterials providing less mobility and a moderate amount of land access, distributing travel to smaller areas, while interconnecting the major roads
local streets providing direct access to the adjacent land and access to the higher classified roads
Level of service A free-flow operations. Traffic flows at or above the posted speed limit and all motorists have complete mobility between lanes. The average spacing between vehicles is about 550 ft(167m) or 27 car lengths
Level of service B reasonable free-flow operations. Free-flow (LOS A) speeds are maintained, maneuverability within the traffic stream is slightly restricted. The lowest average vehicle spacing is about 330 ft(100m) or 16 car lengths
Level of service C Stable flow or at or near free-flow operations. Ability to maneuver through lanes is noticeably restricted and lane changes require more driver awareness. Minimum vehicle spacing is about 220 ft(67m) or 11 car lengths
Level of service D Approaching unstable flow.Freedom to maneuver within the traffic stream is much more limited and driver comfort levels decrease. Vehicles are spaced about 160 ft(50m) or 8 car lengths. Minor incidents are expected to create delays
Level of service E Unstable flow or operations at capacity. Flow becomes irregular and speed varies rapidly because there are virtually no usable gaps to maneuver in the traffic stream and speeds rarely reach the posted limit.
Level of service F Forced or breakdown in vehicular flow. Flow is forced; every vehicle moves in lockstep with the vehicle in front of it, with frequent slowing required. Technically, a road in a constant traffic jam would be at LOS F.
The Land and Water Conservation Fund (1964) provided funds to states that had Statewide Comprehensive Outdoor Recreation Plans. These outdoor plans are used by states to aid local governments in the creation of outdoor and open space recreation plans
Oligotrophic lake A deep lake with a low supply of nutrients and low supply of organic matter
Storm sewers are typically designed to handle up to a __ year flood. 25
Lowering a thermostat by 1 degree Fahrenheit can reduce a heating bill by what percent? up to 3
Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act (1953) defines the OCS as all submerged lands lying seaward of state coastal waters (3 miles offshore) which are under U.S. jurisdiction. Under the OCSLA, the Secretary of the Interior is responsible for the administration of mineral exploration and development
About __ percent of the electricity used in the country goes towards heating, cooling, and lighting buildings. 75
General Services Administration (GSA) works to dispose of excess federal property. In most cases this land can be transferred for a public purpose
Tokenism refers to public participation that is insincere and for which the participation by the public will not have any bearing on the outcome.
What portion of mail surveys are typically returned? Less than 20%
examples of regions that provide regional parks, regional transit, and regional transportation infrastructure. Portland, Columbus and Phoenix
Translational researc aims to make findings from basic science useful for practical applications that enhance human health and well-being
What could be described as the “holy grail” of effective planning agency management? Having the best possible team
auger can be used to retrieve soil samples and then examined for the soil profiles.
You are drafting a wellhead protection ordinance to minimize aquifer contamination. Which of the following would a wellhead protection ordinance protect? I. Primary Recharge Area II. Secondary Recharge Area III. Tertiary Recharge Area
Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Area A geographic entity, as defined by the Federal Office of Management and Budget for use by federal statistical agencies, is based on the concept of two or more overlapping core areas with a large population nuclei that includes at least 1 million people.
Real property consists of all land, structures, attached equipment such as street lights, anything growing on the land, and all "interests" in the property which may be the right to future ownership, right to occupy for a period of time, the right to drill for oil, the
Gross national product the market value of all the products and services produced in one year by labor and property supplied by the citizens of a country - all final goods and services produced in a country in one year (gross domestic product) plus income that residents have r
gross domestic product defines production based on the geographical location of production, GNP allocates production based on location of ownership
The Freedom of Information Act a federal law that requires full or partial disclosure of public information and documents controlled by the federal government. States have their own FOIA requirements for the release of state and local public information
Multiplier Analysis used to project the number of jobs created, but can also be used to project job loss. If an industry had a multiplier 1.5 then if 100 jobs were lost directly in the industry another 50 would be lost in the rest of the economy.
The Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) is responsible for coordinating which of the following federal programs? I. National Environmental Policy Act II. Clean Air Act III. Clean Water Act IV. Farm Bill Conservation
Steps in a Strategic Process The steps in the Strategic Planning process include 1) Conducting a needs assessment 2) Identifying core values 3) Creating a mission Statement 4) Identify fundamental tenets 5) Undertake a SWOT analysis 6) Assign strategic priorities
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