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chapter 16

lymphatic and immune system work together to protect the body.
immune system Cells that defend the body against disease
lymphatic system Organs and vessels in which the immune cells exist
Lymphatic system Lymph,Lymph nodes,Lymphatic tissue,Lymphatic vessels
Lymphatic vessels found in almost every tissue but bone marrow, cartilage, and the central nervous system
Functions of the lymphatic system Maintenance of fluid balance, Absorption of fat, Immunity
Lymph Clear, colorless fluid similar to plasma
Lymph Originates in tissues as the fluid that is left after capillary exchange
Lymph May contain lipids, lymphocytes, hormones, bacteria, viruses, or cellular debris
Lymphatic vessels Similar to veins
Lymphatic vessels Carry fluid in one direction only: away from the tissue
Lymphatic vessels Thin walls and valves to prevent backflow
Lymphatic vessels As the vessels converge closer to the heart, they get larger
Lymphatic vessels Empty into lymph nodes: this is where immune cells phagocytize bacteria
Lymphatic vessels lymphatic fluid moves by the rhythmic contractions of the lymphatic vessels
Lymphatic vessels contraction of skeletal muscles, and respiration
Circulation of Lymph Right Lymphatic Duct, Thoracic Duct
Thoracic Duct Drains lymph form the rest of the body into the left subclavian vein
Right Lymphatic Duct Drains lymph for the upper right quadrant of the body into the right subclavian vein
Lymphatic Tissues and Organs Lymphatic nodules,Lymphatic organs
SECONDARY LYMPHATIC ORGANS Lymph nodes, tonsils and spleen
SECONDARY LYMPHATIC ORGANS contain mature lymphocytes
Lymphatic organs red bone marrow, thymus, lymph nodes, tonsils, and spleen
Lymphatic nodules lymphatic tissue that exists in masses
Lymphatic nodules An example would be the Peyer’s patches of the small intestines
Thymus Located in the mediastinum
Thymus Large in children; starts to shrink by age 14
Thymus Produces thymosin that help to promote the development of lymphocytes
Thymus The dense medulla is filled with T lymphocytes
Thymus “train” the lymphocytes to distinguish host body cells form foreign invaders
Thymus “training” is complete, the lymphocytes are released into the bloodstream
Tonsils Masses of lymphoid tissue
Tonsils Protect against pathogens that enter the body through the nose or the throat
Tonsils Act to filter the air that comes in the nose and mouth.
Tonsils White blood cells in the lymphoid tissue will destroy any viruses or bacteria before they enter the body.
Tonsils 3 sets:Pharyngeal tonsil or adenoids,Palatine tonsils,Lingual tonsils
Spleen Largest lymphatic organ
Spleen Found in the upper left quadrant of the abdomen
Spleen Divided into compartments
2 types of (spleen) tissue Red pulp,White pulp
network of erythrocyte filled sinuses and phagocytic cells. Red pulp
Collects in the venous sinuses after passing through here, then returns to the heart through the veins Red pulp
compact masses of lymphocytes, surrounds the arteries leading to each compartment White pulp
Functions of the spleen Immunity
Functions of the spleen Destruction of old red blood cells
Functions of the spleen Blood storage
Functions of the spleen hematopoiesis
Immunity first line of defense,Second line of defense,Third line of defense
First line of defense External barriers: skin, mucous membranes
Second line of defense Called NONSPECIFIC IMMUNITY or INNATE IMMUNITY
Second line of defense Body production of phagocytic white blood cells triggering inflammation and fever
Third line of defense SPECIFIC IMMUNITY: that which occurs as a result of previous exposure to a pathogen. The immune system has memory of the pathogen or invader
Nonspecific Immunity Protects against a broad range of pathogens
Nonspecific Immunity External barriers: skin and mucous membranes
Nonspecific Immunity Phagocytosis: cells whose job is to ingest and destroy microorganisms and other particles; neutrophils and macrophages
Nonspecific Immunity Antimicrobial proteins: interferons and complement system
Nonspecific Immunity Natural killer cells: lymphocytes that roam the body looking for pathogens or diseased cells; use lysis
Nonspecific Immunity Inflammation: tissue injury (trauma, ischemia, or infection) can trigger this fight reaction by the body
Nonspecific Immunity Fever: pyrexia; a raised body temperature. The person is said to be febrile
Types of Phagocytes Neutrophils, Macrophages
Antimicrobial Proteins Interferons,Complement system
Natural Killer Cells Unique group of lymphocytes
Natural Killer Cells Use several methods to destroy cells
Natural Killer Cells Roma the body
Classic Signs of Inflammation Swelling: due to fluid leaking out of the capillaries
Classic Signs of Inflammation Redness: due to hyperemia
Classic Signs of Inflammation Heat: due to hyperemia
Classic Signs of Inflammation Pain: due to injured nerves from swelling or stimulation from bacterial toxins
Fever As neutrophils and macrophages phagocytize bacteria, they secrete a substance called pyrogen
Fever Pyrogen stimulates the anterior hypothalamus to secrete (prostaglandin E)PGE
Fever PGE resets the body’s set point for temperature
Fever When the set point rises, the body needs to generate heat, it does this by shivering and constricting blood vessels in the skin. The result is chills and cold, clammy skin
The temperature rises until it reaches its new set point; it stays there as long as the pathogen is present Fever
When the pathogen is no longer a threat, the phagocytes stop producing the pyrogen and the body’s set point for temperature returns to normal. Fever
body needs to lose the excess heat, which it does through sweating and dilating the blood vessels in the skin. The result is that the skin is warm and flushed. Fever
Specific Immunity The immune system has a memory of an encounter with the pathogen and will recognize with future exposure
Specific Immunity Directed against a specific pathogen
Specific Immunity HUMORAL (ANTIBODY-MEDIATED) IMMUNITY: sends out antibodies to tag pathogens for later destruction
Specific Immunity CELLULAR (CELL-MEDIATED) IMMUNITY: destroy foreign cells or host cells that have become infected with a pathogen
ACTIVE IMMUNITY: the body makes its own antibodies or T cells against a pathogen Specific Immunity
PASSIVE IMMUNITY: an injection of antibodies from another person or an animal is given to the person to produce immunity Specific Immunity
NATURAL ACTIVE IMMUNITY: the body produces antibodies or T cells after exposure to an antigen Specific Immunity
ARTIFICIAL ACTIVE IMMUNITY: the body makes antibodies or T cells due to having been vaccinated Specific Immunity
NATURAL PASSIVE IMMUNITY: the fetus acquires antibodies form the mother through the placenta or breastfeeding Specific Immunity
Specific Immunity ARTIFICIAL PASSIVE IMMUNITY: obtaining serum from a person or animal that has produced antibodies and then injecting this into someone else
T Lymphocytes Develop from stem cells in red bone marrow
T Lymphocytes T cell
T Lymphocytes Mature in the thymus
B Lymphocytes Stay here until mature
B Lymphocytes Stem cells in the red bone marrow
B Lymphocytes B cells
Antibodies Key to the immune system
Antibodies Gamma globulin proteins formed by B cells and found in plasma and body secretions
Antibodies AKA: immunoglobulins (Ig)
Antibodies ANTIGEN: any molecule that triggers an immune response
5 classes of antibodies IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, IgM
Cellular Immunity Cytotoxic T cells, Helper T cells, Memory T cells
Cellular Immunity Destroys pathogens that exist within a cell; uses 3 classes of T cells
Humoral Immunity Focuses on pathogens outside of the cells
Uses antibodies to mark the cell for destruction Humoral Immunity
Hypersensitivity an inappropriate or excessive immune response
Immediate Allergic Reactions involve antigen antibody reactions
Delayed Allergic Reactions involve cell mediated immunity
Autoimmune Diseases the immune system fails to recognize self and attacks its own tissues
Immunodeficiency Diseases: the immune system fails to adequately protect the body from pathogens
the lymphatic vessel that returns lymph to the left subclavian vein? thoracic duct
tissue fluid begin to be called lymph when it enters the lymph capillaries
larger lymph nodes, what prevents the back flow of lymph valves
important function of the lymphatic system is to return lymphatic fluid to which of the following? blood
name given to the masses of lymphatic tissue located below the epithelium of mucous membranes lymph nodules
name for the lymph nodes that remove pathogens in the lymph coming from the legs inguinal nodes
lymph nodes lymph nodules, and spleen primarily composed of WBC's called lymphocytes
formed when fixed macrophages in the spleen phagocytize old red blood cells bilirubin
During which stage of life is the function of the thymus the most important? childhood
spleen located in the body below the diaphragm
two kinds of antigens from the perspective of the immune system self antigens and foreign antigens
the cells that remember a foreign antigen and initiate its rapid destruction in adaptive immunity from a second exposure memory cells
What are the cells in adaptive immunity that participate in the recognition of foreign antigens macrophages and helper T cells
Recovery from a disease may provide which type of immunity naturally acquired active immunity
name for the immunity that is provided to a newborn baby that has temporary immunity to a disease that its mother is immune to naturally acquired passive immunity
Which of the following best describes the first antibody response to a foreign antigen slow, with a small amount
How is is believed that natural killer cells eliminate foreign cells by damaging their cell membranes
Which of the following is an immune mechanism that does not create memory? innate
Inflammation is the body's response to which of the following? a cut in the skin , brain damage form lack of oxygen , ulcer bacteria in the stomach
Which of the following is not a sign of inflammation? paleness
key functions of the lymphatic system immunity, absorption of fats, and the maintenance of fluid balance
statement most correctly describes the main function of lymph nodes? the removal of pathogens and foreign material form lymphatic tissue
Created by: Coralebberson