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Chapter 11

What are the sensory receptors Chemoreceptors, mechanoreceptors, thermoreceptors, photoreceptors, nociceptors, electroreceptive,proprioceptor
Chemoreceptors React to various chemicals, including odors and taste.
Mechanorecptors Respond to factors, such as pressure, stretch or vibration
Thermoreceptors Activated by change in temperature
Photoreceptors Found only in the eye. Respond to light
Nociceptors Pain receptors that respond to tissue damage from trauma as well as heat, chemicals, pressure or lack of oxygen.
Electroreceptor Organs that detect weak electrical impulses
Proprioceptor Found in skeletal muscle, joints, and tendons. Provide info about body movement, muscle stretch and the general orientation of the body.
Sensory receptor Transmit info about the type location& intensity of each sensation
Pain Nociceptors
Fast pain fibers Produce a sharp localized pain. Stabbing type pain.
Slow pain receptors Congregated deep onto body organs. Produce a dull,aching pain.
Pain pathway 1) injured tissue releases several chemicals that trigger pain
Pain pathway 2) neuron sends pain signal to dorsal horn in spinal cord.
Pain pathway 3) end of horn, signals the thalamus
Pain pathway 4) spinoreticular tract carries pain signals to the reticular formation of the brainstem.
Referred pain Pain ongoing in a deep organ, maybe sense as if ongoing from the body surface.
Anaglgesics Drugs used to relieve pain
Temperature Thermoreceptors mediate sensations of heat and cold
Warm receptors Located in dermis
Warm receptors Activated above 25•c (77•f)
Warm receptors Beyond 48•c (118•f) a sensation of burning pain begins
Cold receptors Located deep in the epidermis
Cold receptors Activated betweeen 10•c (50•f) & 40•c (104•f)
Cold receptors Below 10•c (50•f), firing of cold receptors decreases and the temp acts as anesthetic before activating pain receptors, triggering a feeling of freezing pain.
Specialized nerve endings that provide for senses of touch pressure and stretch. Mechanoreceptors
Touch Pressure, stretch and touch
Types of taste Salty, sweet, sour, bitter, umami (meaty)
Gustation Sense of taste
Smell Chemoreceptors on lining of roof of mouth and nose
Olfacation Sense of smell
Hearing Mechanoreceptors
Process of hearing 1) sound waves enter the ear and travel down the external auditory canal. The waves strike the trympanic membrane, causing it to vibrate
Process of hearing 2) the vibration spreads through the malleus, the incus and the stapes
Process of hearing 3) the movement of the stapes against the oval window shakes the penlymph on either side of the chochlear duct.
Process of hearing The ripples in the Perilymph are transmitted throughout the roof of the cochlear duct to the organ of corti to send nerve impulses along the cochlear nerve. The impulses reach the auditory cortex in the brains temporal lobe, where it’s sound.
Process of sound 5) the ripples continue throughout the perilymph and dissipate by striking the round window.
Outer ear Auricle and pinna
Outer ear Auditory canal: external acoustic meatus
Middle ear Auditory occisles: malleus, incus, stapes
Middle ear Tympanic membrane or eardrum
Middle ear Eustachian tubes
Inner ear Semicircular canals
Inner ear Vestibule
Inner ear Cochlea
Balance Structures responsible: vestibule & semicircular canals
Auricle (pinna) Visible part of the ear. Funnels sound into the auditory canal.
Auditory canal Leads through the temporal bone to the eardrum.
External acoustic meatus Opening canal by the eardrum
Auditory canal Glands longing the canal produce secretions that mix with dead skin cells to form cerumen. (Ear wax)
Cerumn Waterproofs the canal and also traps dirt and bacteria
Auditory ossicles 3 smallest bones in the body Conner the eardrum to the inner ear
3 smallest bones Malleus (hammer), incus (anvil), stapes (stirrup)
Tympanic membrane (eardrum) Separates outer ear from middle ear; vibrates freely in response to sound waves
Eustachian tube Passsage way from the middle ear to the nasopharynx. Equalizes pressure on both sides of the tympanic membrane. It can allow infection to spread from the throat to the middle ear.
Bony labyrinth Inner ear
Semicircular canal Crucial for the maintenance of equilibrium and balance
Vestibule Marks the entrance to the labyrinths, contains organs necessary for the sense of balance.
Cochlea Snail-like structure contains the structures for hearing
Cochlea spirals Divided into 3 ducts
Cochlear duct Middle duct
Organ of corti Sense of hearing organ
Tectonal membrane Gel-like membrane
How balance works Semicircular canals and the vestibule monitor different aspects of balance
Semicircular canals Speed & direction of head movements
Utricle and saccule Position of the head when the body is stationary and also for the sense of acceleration when moving in a straight line.
When the head rotates The endolymph inside the ampulla lags behind
When the movement stops The endolymph swirls past the casual, bending it in the process
This pulls the hair cells, stimulating nearby nerve receptors That then send a signal to the brain via the vestibular nerve
Brain interprets info and maintains balance When the head or body is suddenly moved
When the head tilts, the membrane and the otoliths shift Stimulating the hair cells.
This stimulates nearby receptors of the vestibular nerve To conduct impulses to the brain, which produce a sense of the heads position.
Process of smell 1) incoming molecules bind to cilia projecting from the ends of the olfactory receptor cells
Process of smell 2) stimulates an impulse along nerve fibers leaving the nasal cavities through pores in the ethmoid bone
Process of smell 3) fibers synapses with other neurons in olfactory bulbs
Olfactory bulb Pair of structures residing just underneath the brains frontal lobe
Intermediate neurons (glimeruli) Partially process the impulses
Process of smell 4) the signals continue on the primary olfactory cortex in the brain
Vision Depends on the eye to use light
Vision Convert stored energy into nerve impulses
Vision Nerve impulses travel to the brain
Eyebrow Enhance facial expressions. Non-verbal communication.
Eyebrow Help keep perspiration out of the eye
Eyebrow Shield the eye from glare
Eyelashes Help keep debris and dust out of eye.
Touching eyelashes Stimulates blink reflex
Eyelids (palpebrae) Formed by orbicularis oculi muscle covered with skin
Upper and lower eye lids (palpebrae) Protect eye from foreign bodies and block light when closed
Blinking helps to Moisten eyes and wash out debris
Palpebral fissure Opening between the lids
Tarsal glands Lie along the thickest area at the edge of the eye
Tarsal plate Edge of the eye
Tarsal glands Secrete the oil to slow the evaporation of tears and help form a barrier seal with eyes are closed
Conjunctive Transparent mucous membrane
Conjunctive Lines the inner surface of the eyelid and covers the anterior surface of the eyelid
Conjunctive Secretes a thin mucous to keep the eyeball moist
Conjunctive Very vascular; bloodshot eyes
Lacrimal apparatus Consists of the lacrimal gland and a series of tear ducts
Lacrimal gland Secretes tears that flow onto the eye.
Lacrimal gland Tears clean and moisten the eyes surface
Lacrimal gland Deliver oxygen and nutrients to the conjunctivia.
Tears produce an enzyme called Lyzome-helps prevent infection
Lacrimal punctum Tiny pore @ end of each lacrimal canal
Lacrimal punctum Drains tears to the lacrimal and nasacrimal ducts
Nasolacrimal duct Passageway carries tears into the nasal cavity
Opthalmology Study of the eyes & Treatment of its disease
Extrinsic eye muscle 6 muscles attach to wall of the orbit & surface of eyeball
Superior/inferior oblique muscles Allow you to roll your eye
Created by: Coralebberson
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