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Ch 10

Functions of the nervous system Control, regulation, coordination of body systems, memory and sensation
Divisions of the central system (cns) Central (CNS)& Peripheral (PNS)
Divisions of the Peripheral System (pns) Afferent (sensory), Efferent (motor), visceral, autonomic, somatic, sympathetic and parasympathetic.
Peripheral Nervous System (pns) Throughout the body
Central nervous system (cns) Brain and spinal cord
Efferent (motor) division Transmits info from CNS to rest of the body
Afferent (sensory) division Carries signals from nerve endings and CNS
Somatic nervous system Signals from bones, skin, joints and muscles.
Visceral nervous system Signals come from viscera of heart, lungs, stomach and bladder.
Parasympathetic nervous system Calming effect
Sympathetic nervous system Arouses the body for action
Neuron Impulse-conducting cells that run the nervous system
Classes of neurons Sensory, interneuron and motor
Sensory neuron Detect stimuli such as touch, pressure, heat, cold or chemicals
Interneurons found ONLY in the CNS, connect the incoming with the outgoing.
Motor neurons Relay messages from the brain to the muscle or gland cells.
Types or neurons Multipolar, bipolar, unipolar
Multipolar 1 axon and dendrite. Most common. Brain & spinal cord
Bipolar neurons 2 processes. Axon and dendrite between two. In retina of the eye and olfactory nerve in the nose.
Unipolar neurons 1 process. Branches into T shape. Sensory nerves of the Peripheal Nervous System.
Neuroglia Supportive cells. Protect neuron.
Myelin Speeds up impulses. Typically nerve fibers that stimulate skeletal muscles.
Blood-Brain Barrier Exists throughout the brain. Molecules diffuse across the brain but blocks larger ones. “Basement membrane”
Repair of nerve fibers Pns nerves and regenerate if soma and neurilemma intact. CNS does not have neurilemma and injuries are permanent.
Neuron structure Soma, myelin sheath, and axon
Cell body or soma Contains nucleus; control center of neuron
Axon Carries nerve signals AWAY.
Myelin Sheath Encase most axon. Insulation to axon.
No neurilemma No neuron regeneration
Synapses Chemical. 2 neurons don’t touch.
Epidural space Small space that lies between outer covering of spinal cord.
Central canal Carries cerebrospinal fluid through the spinal cord
Gray matter Lacks myelin. Contains interneurons & motor neurons
White matter Abundance of myelin. Bundles of axon (tracts)
Pia mater Innermost layer.
Arachnoid mater Delicate layer; resembles cob web
Dura mater Tough outer layer
Meninges Covers the outside of the brain. Offering protection.
Ventricles 4 chambers of the brain.
Brain stem Midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata
Medulla oblongata Regulates breathing, bp, heart rate & reflexes.
Pons Send messages through diff sections of the brain
Midbrain Auditory and visual reflexes
Cerebellum Receives/processes messages. Help balance,posture and coordination.
Diencephalon Thalamaus- process and filter impulses
Diencephalon Hypothalamus- controls ans, hunger, thirst, temp regulation, emotional response and controls pituitary gland
Cerebrum Largest part of the brain
Cerebral cortex functions Motor, sensory, language, special senses, memory and cerebral lateralization
Left hemisphere Control rt side of body, language, logical, science and Mary & analytical thought
Right hemisphere Controls lt side of body, creativity, emotion, imagination, art and music.
Neurotransmitter Cholinergic fibers && adrenergic fibers
Receptors Cholinergic receptors && adrenergic receptors
Hypothalamus Bottom 1/2 of the brain
Dendrites Receive signals and conduct the info to the cells body
Physiology Biology that deals with Norma functions of living organisms and their parts.
Metabolism Chemical process that breaks down food and converts to energy.
Homeostasis Tendency to resist change to maintain stability
Nucleus Center of an atom
Actin potential relay 1) travels down axon, change in polarity across the membrane
Actin potential relay 2) NA+ opens in neuron and closed causing depolarization.
Created by: Coralebberson



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