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Chapter 8 & 9

QuestionAnswer
What are joints? The points where bones meet.
What’s another word for joints? Articulations.
What are fibrous joints? Sutures in the skull. They don’t move.
What’s another word for fibrous joint? Synarthroses
What are cartilaginous joints? Slightly moveable. Pubic bones and vertebrae are examples.
What’s another word for cartilaginous joints? Amphiarthroses
Synoval Joint Free moving joint, numerous and versatile. Has a joint capsule.
Diarthroses Another word for synoval joint
What are the types of synoval joints? Pivot joint, ball and socket joint, saddle joint, hinge joint, gliding joint, condyloid joint.
Pivot joint Atlas and axis. Rotates head.
Ball and socket joint Cup-like socket. Offer widest range of motion. Shoulders and hip joints.
Saddle joint Shaped like a horse saddle. Only in thumb.
Hinge joint Elbow and knee. Think of the hinge of a door. It can open and close.
Gliding joint Two bones that slide but don’t touch. Metacarpals and carpals.
Condyloid joint Side to side movement like in the wrist.
Flexion Bending of joint
Extension Straightening of a joint
Hyperextension Typically backwards. Stretching a joint beyond its normal straight position.
Dorsiflexion Moving toes up. (Think of a dolphin, their dorsal fin is pointed up)
Plantar flexion Foot pointed downward. (Plant something down into the ground)
Abduction Away from midline. (If you get abducted you get taken away)
Adduction Toward the midline.
Circulation I’m a circular motion
Internal Rotation Bone spins towards the body (spin the bone in)
External rotation Bone spins away from the body. (When you exit you walk away)
Supination Palm upward. (Hold a hot bowl of soup in your palm).
Pronation Palm downward
Inversion Sole moves inward.
Eversion Sole moves away from foot.
Shoulders synovial joint Humeroscapular joint & glenchumeral joint
Elbow synovial joint Humeroulnar joint
Knee synovial joint Tibiofemoral joint
Hip synovial joint Ball & socket joint
Arthroplasty Surgical procedure that replaces a diseased joint.
Arthritis Inflammation of a joint
Rheumatoid Arthritis Autoimmune disease in which the body’s antibodies attack the synovial membranes.
Osteoarthritis Bone on bone rubbing
Dislocation The shoulder is more likely to be dislocated than the hip bones. Ball and socket joints are the easiest to dislocate.
What are the different types of muscle? Cardiac, smooth and skeletal muscle
Cardiac muscle Found only in the heart. Involuntary. Straited when viewed under a microscope.
Smooth muscle In digestive tract and uterus. Involuntary and non-straited.
Skeletal Muscle Attached to bone. Straited under microscope. Voluntary muscle.
What is the structure of a skeletal muscle? muscle fiber, endomysium, fascicles, perimysium, epimysium, fascia
Muscle fiber Skeletal muscle cell
Endomysium Connective tissue that covers each muscle fiber
Fascicles Muscle fibers grouped in bundles
Perimysium Sheath of tough connective tissue that encases the fascicles.
Epimysium Connective tissue surrounds the muscle as a whole and binds all fibers.
Fascia Surrounds the muscle.
Muscle fiber structure Myofilament, sarcoplasmic reticulum, sarcolemma. **every muscle fiber has a nuclei**
Myofilament (inside) - made of myosin (thick) - made of actin (thin)
Sarcoplasmic Reticulum (inside) -surrounds myofillament -myofibrils store glycogen (for energy)
Sarcolemma (outside) Surrounds muscle fiber cell
Actin and myosin Will be attracted at one point
Contraction Actin and myosin slide together without touching one another.
Relaxation Actin and myosin slide apart without touching one another.
Myofibril The thick and thin myofilaments stack together, alternating with one another to form myofibrils.
Sarcomere Where muscle contraction occurs.
Step 1 of how muscle fibers contract Impulse reaches the end of a motor neuron, small vesicles and cell membrane fuse,release a neurotransmitter into the synaptic cleft.
Step 2 of how muscle fibers contract ACh quickly diffuses across the synaptic cleft, stimulates receptors in the sarcolemma.
Step 3 of how a muscle contracts Send an electrical impulse over the sarcolemma and onward along the T rubules. Impulse in the T tubles cause the sacs in the sarcoplasmic reticulum to release calcium
Step 4 of muscle fibers contraction Calcium binds with troponin on the actin filament to expose attachment points. Myosin heads of the thick filaments grab onto the thin filaments and contraction occurs.
Muscle Fiber Relaxation Nerve impulses stop arriving at the neuromuscular junction, ACh is no longer needed. Calcium gets absorbed.
Threshold stimulus Need a minimum amount of voltage for muscles to contract.
Twitch Single, brief contractionn
Treppe Contracts several times in a row, the contraction will increase or get smaller
Tetanus Muscle contracting
Incomplete tetanus Over time they come back to back and the muscle doesn’t have time to completely relax.
Complete tetanus Long contraction with NO relaxation.
Muscle tone Complete tetanus
Isometric Tension increases in muscle fibers but it’s length remains the same.
Isotonic contraction Tension stays the same but the muscle shortens
Isometric contraction Plank excercise
Isotonic contraction Lifting weights
Origin End of the the muscle that attaches to the more stationary bone.
Belly Thick midsection of the muscle
Insertion End of the muscle that attaches to the more moveable bone.
External intercostal Lie superficially between ribs; elevate the ribs during inspiration.
Internal intercostal Lie deeper than the external intercostal; depress the ribs during forced exhalation.
Diaphragm Enlarged the thorax to trigger respiration.
Deltoid Abducts, flexes and rotates the arm. Involved in swinging the arm; also raises the arm to perform tasks, such as writing on an elevated surface.
Energy source All muscle contraction requires energy in the form of ATP.
Energy storage Muscles only store very small amounts of atp
Energy storage A few seconds of activity will completely deplete the atp within a muscle fiber.
Origin End of a muscle that attaches to the more stationary bone.
Belly Thick midsection of the muscle
Insertion End of the muscle that attaches to the more moveable bone
External intercostal Lie superficially between ribs; elevate the ribs during respiration.
Internal intercostal Lie deeper than the external, depress the ribs during forex exhalation
Diaphragm Enlarged the thorax to trigger respiration
Deltoid Abducts, flexes and rotates the arm. Involved in swinging the arm; also raises the arm to perform tasks, such as writing on an elevated surface
Created by: Coralebberson