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Chapter 5-7

What are the functions of the bone? Shape Support Protection Movement Electrolyte balance Blood production Acid base balance
What is bone marrow? The site for blood production.
What are the classifications of bones? Long Short Flat Irregular
What are the Parts of a long bone? Epiphysis Diaphysis Medullary cavity Epiphyseal plate Osteomyelitis
Epiphysis End of the long bone. Spongy bone with articular cartilage. It’s an attachment point.
Diaphysis Shaft-like portion of the long bone
Medullary cavity Inside diaphysis. Otherwise known as the marrow cavity.
Epiphyseal plate I’m children it’s cartilage. The bone will grow longer. Once growth stops it’ll turn into bone.
Osteomyelitis Inflammation of the bone marrow or bone that results from an infection. Bone infections are often extremely difficult to treat.
Are bones living tissue? Yes
Osteology The study of bone.
What are the different bone tissues ? Osteoblasts, osteoclasts, osteocytes
Osteoblasts Help form bone by secreting substances that compromise the bones matrix.
Osteoclasts Dissolve unwanted or unhealthy bone
Osteocytes Help to form bone, but also dissolve bone. Release calcium to blood stream.
What are the different types of bone strength? Tensile, compressional, torsional
Tensile Helps to protect bones against stretching
Compressional Protects bones against compressing
Torsional Protects bone against twisting.
What type of bone strength is the least strong? Torsional
What are the types of bone tissues? Spongy & compact
Spongy bone tissue More porous, found at the end of long bones and the middle of the short bones. Surrounded by compact bone. Filled with red bone marrow.
Compact bone tissue Dense and solid. It’s density offers strength, which is why it forms the shafts of long bones and the outer surfaces of other bones.
Red Bone Marrow ALL of children’s bones contain red bone marrow. This marrow is responsible for producing red blood cells. Red Bone Marrow is only found in an adults skull, ribs, sternum, pelvis and vertebrae.
Yellow Bone Marrow Replaces red bone marrow. Yellow bone marrow does not produce blood cells. In extreme cases yellow bone marrow CAN switch to red bone marrow.
What are the types of bone development? Intramembranous ossification & endochondral ossification
Intramembranous Ossification When bones start out as fibrous connective tissues, then it goes into groups of stem cells in osteoblasts.
Endochondral ossification Most bones evolve from cartilage which clacifies into bone. It moves from the center out.
Osteoporosis Porus bones. When bones loose too much mass that they become extremely brittle. Found mainly in women.
Hormones A nutrition and heredity influenced growth.
What are the steps of bone growth? Lengthening, widening & thickening, remodeling
Lengthening Occurs at the epiphyseal plate. Age 25 for boys and 16 for girls.
Widening & Thickening Add new layers to the outside of the bone, then widens the inside of the canal.
Remodeling Destruction of old bone cells and replacing it with new cells. It releases calcium into the blood stream.
What are the different types of fractures? Simple, compound, green stick, comminuted, spiral, pathologic.
Simple fracture Bone remains aligned and the tissue intact.
Compound fracture Bone pierced the skin. Damage to tissue, nerves and blood vessels. More exposure to infection. Typically requires surgery.
Green stick Fracture is incomplete. Occurs mostly in children because their bones are softer.
Comminuted Bone broken into several pieces
Pathologic Break in diseased or weakened bone from a force that doesn't typically happen.
Spiral Fractures in a spiral around the bone. Result of a twisting force. Common in child abuse.
What are long bones? These bones have very long acid and are longer than they are wide. They work like levers and move limbs.
What are flat bones? Thin, flat, often curved bones that protect organs. They provide a large surface area for the attachment of muscles.
Irregular bones Often clustered in groups, they come in various sizes and shapes. Sesamoid bones are small bones embedded in tendons.
Short bones About as broad as they are long, these tend to be shaped like cubes.
Electrolyte balance Bones store and release minerals such as calcium and phosphorus. Which are necessary ingredients for a variety of chemical reactions throughout the body.
Blood production Bones encase bone marrow, a major site of blood cell formation.
Acid-base balance Bone absorbs and releases alkaline salts to help maintain a stable pH
What are the factors of growth and maintenance? Hormones, Heredity and Nutrition.
Osteogenesis Imperfecta Known as brittle bone or glass bone disease. Bones are extremely easy to break.
What are the skeletal divisions? Axial & appendicular
Axial Skull, vertebrae and ribs. 80 bones in total.
Appendicular The remaining 126 bones of the body.
What are the different bones in the skull? Parietal, occipital, frontal, temporal
Parietal bones Found on the sides of the skull. We have 2
Occipital Bone The back of the skull
Frontal Bone The front of the skull
Temporal bones Sides of cranium and cranial flood. Found by your ears. We gave 2.
What are the facial bones ? Maxillae, mandible and hyoid
Maxillae From the front of your face (mouths and up around the nose) 2 bones.
Mandible The human jaw bone
Hyoid bone Only bone that dosent move with another bone. Gets fractured if you are strangled.
What are the fontanels in the infant skull? Anterior & Posterior
Anterior Fontanel Diamond shape. Front of the head. The largest.
Posterior Fontanel Triangle shape. Back of the head. The smallest.
What are the different bones in the vertebral column? Atlas, axis, cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacrum, coccyx, intervertebral disc.
Atlas Holds our head up
Axis Rotates our head side to side
Cervical 7 bones.
Thoracic 12 bones
Lumbar 5 bones
Sacrum 5 fused vertebrae
Coccyx 4 fused vertebrae
Intervertebral disc Support weight and absorb shock. Have a gel-like core.
What are the bones on the thoracic cage? Sternum, ribs (true,false,floating)
Sternum Xiphoid process- important landmark for CPR
How many ribs do you have? 12 pairs
True rib Attach to the sternum
False rib Attach to the cartilage
Floating rib DO NOT attach to anything in the front.
What are the upper limbs? Pectoral girdle, humerus, radius,ulna, phalanges, carpals and metacarpals.
What is the pectoral girdle? Shoulders, clavicle and scapula
Humerus Long bone of the upper arm
Radius On the thumb side
Ulna On the pinky side
Phalanges Fingers or toes
Carpals & tarsals Wrist or ankle
Metacarpals & Metatarsals Hand or foot
What are the lower limbs? Pelvic girdle, femur, patella, tibia, fibula, tarsals, metatarsals & phalanges.
Pelvic girdle Pelvis
Patella Knee
Femur Long bone on leg. (I’m going to feel up the femur)
Tibia Shin
Fibula Supports the ankle but NON weight bearing
Epidermis Outermost layer of skin. Consists of stratified squamous and epithelial tissue. Contains NO blood vessels. Instead it obtains oxygen and nutrients by diffusion from the dermis.
Dermis Inner, deeper layer, composed of connective tissues. Contains primarily collagen fibers but it also contains elastin and reticular fibers. Has an abundance of blood, sweat glands, sebaceous tissue and nerve endings.
Collagen fibers Strengthen the tissue
Elastin fibers Provide elasticity
Reticular fibers Bind collagen and elastin fibers together.
Hypodermis Subcutaneous tissue beneath the skin. Made up of loose connective tissue and adipose tissue. Helps regulate body temp and acts as an energy reservoir.
What are the different skin functions? Protection, barrier, vitamin d production, sensory perception and thermoregulation.
Protection Prevents micro organisms l, as well as many harmful chemicals from invading the body. Secretes a residue or surface film that helps blocks toxins and inhibit bacterial and fungal growth. Absorbs the force of injuries.
Barrier Keeps the body from absorbing excess water. Prevents dehydration by regulating the volume and content of fluid lost from the body. blocks uv radiation so it doesn’t reach the underlying tissues.
Created by: Coralebberson