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General Anatomy

Chapter 2

TermDefinition
Plasma (cell) Membrane "plasmalemma" act as a barrier, regulate exchange, detect changes, structural support, location of attachment made of fats, proteins, and carbs
Cytoplasm material located between the cell membrane and the membrane of the nucleus, made of cytosol and organelles
Cytoskeleton *organelle* cell skeleton, made of protein,
Microvilli *organelle* fingerlike projections
Centrioles *organelle* associated w/ movement of DNA during cell division
Cilica *organelle* long slender extensions of the cell membrane
Ribosomes *organelle* performs protein synthesis
Proteasomes *organelle* protein digesting enzymes, (proteases) break down damaged proteins
Endoplasnic Reticulum *organelle* smooth ER =NO ribosomes it syntheses fats, hormones & sugar. rough ER = ribosomes it aids in protein modification
Golgi Apparatus *organelle* packaging and renewing
Lysosomes *organelle* clean the cell
Peroxisomes *organelle* break down fatty acids and other organic compounds
Mitochondria *organelle* double folded membrane w/ cristae convert carbs to ATP via the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) (krebs)
Nucleus *organelle* largest organelle, control center
Nucleus Contains: nucleoplasm: fluid nuclear matrix: structure chromosomes: DNA attached to histones (46, 23 pairs)
DNA 4 repeating nitrogenous bases: Adenine Thymine Cytosine Guanine
Mitosis the division on the nucleus of a somatic body into 2 cells
interphase most of a cell's life, regular function
prophase 1st, nuclear envelope dissolves
Metaphase 2nd, chromosomes line up in the middle
Anaphase 3rd, chromosomes separate to each side
Telophase 4th, nuclear envelope forms and surrounds each set of chromosomes
Neurons cells that transmit electrical messages
Neuroglia (Glial cells) support neurons
Created by: michellerolfs