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Anatomy & Phys

Study Guide Chapter 12 Nervous System

Major Structures of the Nervous System Brain Contains 100 billion neurons
Major Structures of the Nervous System Cranial Nerves Contains 12 pairs of nerves and emerge from the base of the brain.
Major Structures of the Nervous System Spinal Cord Located in the Vertebral(Spinal) cavity
Major Structures of the Nervous System Spinal Nerves Contain 31 pairs of nerves and emerge from the spinal cord
Major Structures of the Nervous System Ganglia Masses of nervous tissue, located outside the brain and spinal cord
Masses of nervous tissue, located outside the brain and spinal cord Sensory Receptors Monitor changes in the internal or external environment
Types of Peripheral Nerves---Afferent or Sensory Nerve Is a division of the Peripheral Nervous System(PNS) that forms Action potential and conveys it to the Central Nervous System(CNS) Body Part----CNS
Types of Peripheral Nerve---Motor Nerve or Efferent Is a division of the Peripheral Nervous System(PNS) that conveys Action Potential away from the CNS CNS-----Body Part
Subdivision of the PNS(Nerves) Somatic Subdivision Sensory and Motor Nerves that connect to the Skeletal Muscle and the Skin. Because its motor responses can be consciously controlled, the action of this part of the PNS is voluntary.
Subdivision of the PNS(Nerves) Autonomic Subdivision Sensory and Motor Nerves that connect to Smooth Muscle, Cardiac Muscle, and Glands. Because its motor responses are not normally under conscious control, the action of the ANS is involuntary
Parts of a Neuron Cell Body--The Control Center Dendrite---The "Receiving" process Axon---The "Transmitting " Process Axon Hillock---Beginning of the Axon Axoplasm----Cytoplasm of the Axon Axon Terminal---The End of the Axon Axolemma---The plasma membrane of the Axon Axon Collateral----Branch of an Axon
Neuroglial Cell (Know Location and Function of these Cells) Are located in the CNS and only in the Brain and Spinal Cord and are Astrocyte, Microglia cell, Oligodendrocyte and Ependymal Cell. Are located in the PNS and are Schwann Cell and Satellite Cell
Neuroglial Cell---The Astrocyte Contains microfilament and Supports Neuron ----Provides Safe Nutrients to the neuron ----Helps form the Blood-Brain Barrier -----Maintains the proper Chemical Environment around the neuron for impulse transmission
Neuroglial Cell---The Microglial Cell Is a Phagocyte
Neuroglial Cell---The Oligodendrocyte Produces the Myelin Sheath in the CNS
Neuroglial Cell---The Ependymal Cell A Single layer of Ciliated Cuboidal or Columnar Cell ----Lines the Ventricles of the Brain and Central Canal of the Spinal Cord ---Secretes and Circulates Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) by Filtering Blood Plasma
Neuroglial Cell --The Satellite Cell Located in the PNS and Surrounds The Cell Body of the PNS neurons. ---Provides Structural Support ----Regulates the Exchange of Materials between the Neuronal Cell Bodies and the Interstitial Fluid
Neuroglial Cell---The Schwann Cell Located in the PNS and Produces The Myelin Sheath in the PNS ----Each Schwann Cell myelinates of a single axon ---Participates in Axon Regeneration
Myelination The formation of myelin around the axon ----Each Schwann Cell wraps 1 mm of a single axon ----Spirals many times around the axon
Nodes of Ranvier Gaps on the axon where Myelin is absent Myelin and Nodes of Ranvier Increase the Speed of Electrical Impulses transmission along the axon
Gray and White Matter in the CNS Gray Matter is Nervous Tissue that is not Myelinated , which includes Dendrites, Cell Bodies, and Unmyelinated Axons White Matter is Nervous Tissues that is Heavily Myelinated Myelinated Axons
Functional Classification of Neurons Are based on the Direction and type of information transmitted along the axon There are Three Types: Sensory Neurons Interneurons Motor Neurons
Functional Classification of Neurons Sensory Neurons Sends nerve impulses from sensory receptors in external or internal to the CNS
Functional Classification of Neurons Motor Neurons Sends nerve impulses from the CNS to the Body Parts called Effectors
Functional Classification of Neurons Interneuron(Association Neuron) Relays Information between the Sensory and the Motor Neurons Located Only in the CNS The Numbers of interneurons are much More that the sensory or Motor Neurons
Resting Membrane Potential Is distribution or negative ions inside and positive ions are outside the membrane Is a measured by a voltmeter
Factors that contribute to resting membrane potential(Know in detail for test) The Na+/K+ pump Different Permeability of Membrane to Na+, K+, and intracellular anions(Negatively Charged Ions)
The Na+/K+ Pump Pumps 3N+ out and 2K+ in every cycle Each Cycle of pumping adds One More Positive (+) to ECF
Selective Permeability of Membrane The number of K+ that leave the cell is more than the number of Na+ that Enters the Cell (refer to the leakage-gated channels) Intracellular Anons want to leave the cell, but membrane prevents them (most of these anions are part of large proteins)
Membrane Ion Channels (Factors stimulating the opening of their gates) The flow of Ions occurs through specifically gated ion channels: ---Leakage Channels ---Mechanically Gated Channels ---Voltage-Gated Channels ---Ligand-Gated Channels
Membrane Ion Channels Leakage Channels Randomly Open and Close Membrane has More K+ Leakage channel than Na+ Leakage Channel---membrane is More Permeable to K+ than Na+
Membrane Ion Channels Mechanically Gated Channels Open and close in response to Mechanical Stimulation such as:Vibration(Sound Wave), pressure, touch, tissue stretching
Membrane Ion Channels Voltage-Gated Channels Open and Close when small Changes in Resting Membrane Potential occurs Participate in the generation and conduction of Action Potentials/impulses
Membrane Ion Channels Ligand-Gated Channels Opens when a ligand (neurotransmitter) Binds to its Receptor
The Nerve Impulse A change in the resting membrane potential Two Types: Graded Potential Action Potential
The Nerve Impulse The Graded Potential Occurs mainly in the Dendrites and Cell Bodies of the Neurons Useful for Short Communications only Is short-Lived, eventually dies out Is weak
The Nerve Impulse The Action Potential (Impulse) Occurs in the axons of the neurons Useful for Long Distance Communication Does Not Die Out Is Strong Is All-Or- None
Three Phases of Action Potential (Depolarization) Voltage-Gated Na+ Channels Open in the axolemma Na+ Enter the Neuron The inside of the neuronal membrane becomes Less Negative and then eventually Positive
Three Phases of Action Potential (Repolarization) Voltage-Gated K+ Channels Open in the axolemma K+ leaves the neuron The inside of the neuronal membrane goes From Positive Back to Negative (less positive and more negative)
Three Phases of Action Potential (Hyperpolarization) Voltage-Gated K+ Channels continue to stay open in the axolemma K+ continues to leave the neuron The inside of the neuronal membrane becomes More Negative than the resting membrane potential
Transmitting of the Action Potential When Ions Na+ Flow in, they may cause Voltage-Gated Na+ channels in Adjacent Segments of the membrane to Open Positive Feedback One direction, only toward the axon terminal
Transmitting of the Action Potential (Saltatory Conduction) Occurs on Myelinated Axons The Voltage-Gated Channels are located Only in the Nodes of Ranvier Current Jumps from a node of Ranvier to the next node of Ranvier Is Fast Less ATP is used
Transmitting of the Action Potential (Continuous Conduction) Occurs on Unmyelinated Axons Current Flows directly through the membrane all along the length of the axon Is Slow More ATP is Used
The Synapse Is the place where two neuronal processes meet or where an axon comes into close contact with its target
Types of Synapse (Electrical Synapse) Are presynaptic and postsynaptic cells that are connected by Gap Junction
Types of Synapse Chemical Synapse Are presynaptic and postsynaptic cells that are Separated by Synaptic Cleft(the space that is filled with interstitial fluid)
Presynaptic Neuron Sends the signal message
Postsynaptic Cell Receives the signal message
Excitatory and Inhibitory Neurotransmitters Excitatory: Causes opening Na+ channels in the postsynaptic neuron membrane------depolarization Inhibitory: Causes opening K+ channels or CL- channels----Hyperpolarization
Examples of Excitatory and Inhibitory Neurotransmitters Acetylcholine(ACh) Excitatory in Neuromuscular Junction Inhibitory in Parasympathetic Neurons
Examples of Excitatory and Inhibitory Neurotransmitters Glutamate: excitatory in CNS:Mood, Level of Consciousness, Learning memory GABA(Gamma Aminobutyric Acid): Inhibitory in CNS: the Major "Brake" to excitability in the brain Glycine
Created by: rbissoon29



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