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Anatomy Ch13bloodsys

Blood System

QuestionAnswer
albumin protein in blood; maintains the proper amount of water in the blood
antibody (Ab) specific protein (immunoglobulin) produced by lymphocytes in response to bacteria, viruses, or other antigens. An antibody Is specific to an antigen and inactivates it.
antigen substance (usually foreign) that stimulates the production of an antibody
basophil white blood cell containing granules that stain blue; associated with release of histamine and heparin
bilirubin orange-yellow pigment in bile; formed by the breakdown of hemoglobin when red blood cells are destroyed
coagulation blood clotting
colony-stimulating factor protein that stimulates growth of white blood cells (granulocytes)
differentiation change in structure and function of a cell as it matures; specialization
electrophoresis method of separating serum proteins by electrical charge
eosinophil white blood cell containing granules that stain red; associated with allergic reactions
erythroblast immature red blood cell
erythrocyte red blood cell. There are about 5 million per microliter or cubic millimeter of blood
erythropoietin (EPO) hormone secreted by the kidneys; stimulates red blood cell formation
fibrin protein that forms the basis of a blood clot
fibrinogen plasma protein that is converted to fibrin in the clotting process
globulin plasma protein; alpha, beta, and gamma (immune) globulins are examples
granulocyte white blood cell with numerous dark-staining granules: eosinophil, neutrophil, and basophil
hematopoietic stem cell cell in the bone marrow that gives rise to all types of blood cells
hemoglobin blood protein containing iron; carries oxygen in red blood cells
heparin anticoagulant found in blood and tissue cells
immune reaction response of the immune system to foreign invasion
immunoglobulin protein (a globulin) with antibody activity; examples are IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE, IgD. Immun/o means protection
leukocyte white blood cell
lymphocyte mononuclear leukocyte that produces antibodies
macrophage monocyte that migrates from the blood to tissue spaces. As a phagocyte, it engulfs foreign material and debris. in the liver, spleen, and bone marrow, macrophages dstroy worn out red blood cells
megakaryocyte large platelet precursor cell found in the bone marrow
monocyte leukocyte with one large nucleus. it is a cell that engulfs foreign material and debris. monocytes become macrophages as they leave the blood and enter body tissues
mononuclear pertaining to a cell (leukocyte) with a single round nucleus; lymphocytes and monocytes are mononuclear leukocytes
myeloblast immature bone marrow that gives rise to granulocytes
neutrophil granulocytic leukocyte formed in bone marrow. it is a phagocytic tissue-fighting cell. also called a polymorphonuclear leukocyte
plasma liquid portion of blood; contains water, proteins, salts, nutrients, lipids, hormones, and vitamins
plasmapheresis removal of plasma from withdrawn blood by centrifuge. collected cells are retransfused back into the donor. fresh-frozen plasma or salt solution is used to replace withdrawn plasma
platelet small blood fragment that collects at sites of injury to begin the clotting process
polymorphonuclear pertaining to a white blood cell with a multilobed nucleus; neutrophil
prothrombin plasma protein; concerted to thrombin in the clotting process
reticulocyte immature erythrocyte. A network of strands is seen after staining the cell with special dyes
Rh factor antigen on red blood cells of Rh-positive individuals. the factor was first identified in the blood of a rhesus monkey
serum plasma minus clotting proteins and cells. clear, yellowish fluid that separates from blood when it is allowed to clot. it is formed from plasms, but does not contain protein-coagulation factors
stem cell unspecialized cell that gives rise to mature, specialized forms. A hematopoietic stem cell is the progenitor for all different types of blood cells
thrombin enzyme that converts fibrinogen to fibrin during coagulation.
thrombocyte platelet
bas/o base (alkaline the opposite of acid)
chrom/o color
coagul/o clotting
cyt/o cell
eosin/o red, dawn, rosy
erythro/o red
granul/o granules
hem/o blood
hemat/o blood
hemoglobin/o hemoglobin
is/o same, equal
kary/o nucleus
leuk/o white
mon/o one, single
morph/o shape, form
myel/o bone marrow
neutr/o neutral (neither base nor acid)
nucle/o nucleus
phag/o eat, swallow
poikil/o varied, irregular
sider/o iron
spher/o globe, round
thromb/o clot
-apheresis removal, a carrying away
-blast immature or embryonic cell
-cytosis abnormal condition of cells (increase in cells)
-emia blood condition
-gen giving rise to; producing
-globin protein
-lytic pertaining to destruction
-oid derived or originating from
-osis abnormal condition
-penia deficiency
-phage eat, swallow
-philia attraction for (an increase in cell numbers)
-phoresis carrying, transmission
-poiesis formation
-stasis stop, control
anemia deficiency in erythrocytes or hemoglobin
aplastic anemia failure of blood cell production in the bone marrow
hemolytic anemia reduction in red cells die to excessive destruction
pernicious anemia lack of mature erythrocytes caused by inability to absorb vitamin B12 into the bloodstream
sickle cell anemia hereditary disorder of abnormal hemoglobin producing sickle-shaped erythrocytes and hemolysis
thalassemia inherited disorder of abnormal hemoglobin production leading to hypochromia
hemochromatosis excess iron deposits throughout the body
polycythemia vera general increase in red blood cells (erythremia)
hemophilia excessive bleeding caused by hereditary lack of factors VIII and IX necessary for blood clotting
purpura multiple pinpoint hemorrhages and accumulation of blood under the skin
leukemia increase in cancerous white blood cells (leukocytes)
granulocytosis abnormal increase in granulocytes in the blood
mononucleosis infectious disease marked by increased numbers of mononuclear leukocytes and enlarged cervical lymph nodes
multiple myeloma malignant neoplasm of bone marrow
antiglobulin (coombs) test test for the presence of antibodies that coat and damage erythrocytes
bleeding time time required for blood to stop flowing from a tiny puncture wound
coagulation time time required for venous blood to clot in a test tube
complete blood count determination of numbers of blood cells, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, and red cell values
erythrocyte sedimentation rate speed at which erythrocytes settle out of plasma
hematocrit percentage of erythrocytes in a volume of blood
hemoglobin test total amount of hemoglobin in a sample of peripheral blood
platelet count number of platelets per cubic millimeter or microliter of blood
prothrombin time test for the ability of blood to clot
red blood cell count number or erythrocytes per cubic millimeter or microliter of blood
red blood cell morphology microscopic examination of a stained blood smear to determine the shape of individual red cells
white blood cell count number or leukocytes per cubic millimeter or microliter of blood
white blood cell differential percentages of different types of leukocytes in the blood
apheresis separation of blood into component parts and removal of a select portion from the blood
blood transfusion whole blood or cells are taken from a donor and infused into a patient
bone marrow biopsy microscopic examination of a core of bone marrow removed with a needle
hematopoietic stem cell transplantation peripheral stem cells from a compatible donor are administered to a recipient
Created by: ShellyBee