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Anatomy Ch11

Cardiovascular System

Blood Vessels: Artery The large blood vessels that lead away from the heart. Very strong with elastic walls which allows them to expand. Arterioles are smaller branches of arteries; they are thinner and carry blood to the capillaries
Blood Vessels: Veins conduct blood from tissues to the heart; not as flexible as arteries. Valves in veins keep blood moving in one direction. Muscular action assists with the movement of blood in the veins.
Blood Vessels: Capillaries carry nutrient rich, oxygenated blood from the arteries and arterioles to the cells of the body; thin walls facilitate this process. Venules carry waste filled blood back to the heart.
Oxygen deficient blood flows through Venae cavae
Oxygen deficient blood enters the right side of the heart
Oxygen deficient blood enters the right side of the heart it then travels through that side into the pulmonary artery which divides into two branches; one leading to the left lung and the other to the right
Within the lungs, the arteries continue to divide forming arterioles until they reach the lung capillaries
within the lungs the arteries continue to divide forming arterioles until they reach the lung capillaries. Here, blood absorbs oxygen which is then returned to the heart through pulmonary veins
Oxygen rich blood enters the left side of the heart form the pulmonary veins
The muscles in the left side of the heart pump blood out of the heart through the aorta
The aorta divides into branches called arteries that carry the oxygenated blood to all parts of the body
the aorta divides into branches called arteries that carry the oxygenated blood to all parts of the body. These branch to form arterioles
the arterioles branch into tissue capillaries where oxygen leaves the blood and passes through the thin capillary walls to enter body cells.
oxygen leaves the blood and passes through the thin capillary walls to enter body cells (food is broken down and energy is released). this process results in the release of carbon dioxide waste
blood returns to the heart through venules and veins
the blood here is filled with this waste and is oxygen depleted as it enters the heart again through the venae cavae
aorta largest artery in the body
apex of the heart lower tip of the heart
arteriole small artery
artery largest type of blood vessel; carries blood away from the heart to all parts of the body. Notice that artery and away begin with an "a"
atrioventricular bundle (bundle of his) specialized muscle fibers connecting the atria with the ventricles and transmitting electrical impulses between them. His is pronounced "hiss"
atrioventricular node (AV node) specialized tissue in the wall between the atria. Electrical impulses pass from the pacemaker (SA node) through the Av node and the atrioventricular bundle or bundle of his toward the ventricles.
atrium atria one of two upper chambers of the heart
capillary smallest blood vessel. Materials pass to and from the bloodstream through the thin capillary walls
carbon dioxide (CO2) Gas (waste) released by body cells, transported via veins to the heart, and then to the lungs for exhalation
coronary arteries blood vessels that branch from the aorta and carry oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle.
deoxygenated blood blood that is oxygen-poor
diastole relaxation phase of the heartbeat.
electrocardiogram record of the electricity flowing through the heart. The electricity is represented by waves or deflections called P, QRS, or T
endocardium inner lining of the heart
endothelium innermost lining of blood vessels
mitral valve valve between the left atrium and the left ventricle; bicuspid valve
murmur abnormal swishing sound caused by improper closure of the heart valves
myocardium muscular, middle layer of the heart
normal sinus rhythm heart rhythm originating in the sinoatrial node with a rate in patients at rest of 60 - 100 beats per minute
oxygen gas that enters the blood through the lungs and travels to the heart to be pumped via arteries to all body cells
pacemaker (sinoatrial node) specialized nervous tissue in the right atrium that begins the heartbeat. An artificial cardiac pacemaker is an electronic apparatus implanted in the chest to stimulate heart muscle that is weak and not functioning
pericardium double-layered membrane surrounding the heart
pulmonary artery artery carrying oxygen-poor blood from the heart to the lungs
pulmonary circulation flow of blood from the heart to the lungs and back to the heart
pulmonary valve valve positioned between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery
pulmonary vein one of two pairs of vessels carrying oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart
pulse beat of the heart as felt through the walls of the arteries
septum septa partition or wall dividing a cavity; such as between the right and left atria (interatrial septum) and right and left ventricles (interventricular septum)
sinoatrial node (SA node) pacemaker of the heart
sphygmomanometer instrument to measure blood pressure
systemic circulation flow of blood from body tissue to the heart and then from the heart back to body tissues
systole contraction phase of the heartbeat.
tricuspid valve located between the right atrium and the right ventricle; it has three (tri) leaflets, or cusps
valve structure in veins or in the heart that temporarily closes an opening so that blood flows in only one direction
vein thin-walled vessel that carries blood from body tissues and lungs back to the heart. Veins contain valves to prevent backflow of blood
vena cava venae largest vein in the body. The superior and inferior venae cavae return blood to the right atrium of the heart
ventricle one of two lower chambers of the heart
venule small vein
angi/o vessel
aort/o aorta
arter/o arterio/o artery
ather/o yellowish plaque, fatty substance
atri/o atrium, upper heart chamber
brachi/o arm
cardi/o heart
cholesterol/o cholesterol (a lipid substance)
coron/o heart
cyan/o blue
myx/o mucus
ox/o oxygen
pericardi/o pericardium
phleb/o vein
rrhythm/o rhythm
sphygm/o pulse
steth/o chest
thromb/o clot
valvul/o valv/o valve
vas/o vessel
vascul/o vessel
ven/o ven/i vein
ventricul/o ventricle, lower heart chamber
arrhythmias Abnormal heart rhythms arrhythmias are problems with the conduction or electrical system of the heart.
bradycardia and heart block (atrioventricular block) failure of proper conduction of impulses from the SA node through the Av mode to the atrioventricular bundle (bundle of his)
cardiac pacemaker implantation of an artificial cardiac pacemaker overcomes arrhythmias and keeps the heart beating at the proper rate. The pacemaker power source is a generator that contains a computer and lithium battery. Implanted under skin below collar bone.
flutter rapid but regular contractions, usually of the atria
fibrillation very rapid, random, inefficient, and irregular contractions of the heart. (350 beats or more per minute)
congenital heart disease abnormalities in the heart at birth
coarctation of the aorta (CoA) narrowing (coarctation) of the aorta
patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) passageway (ductus arteriosus) between the aorta and the pulmonary artery remains open (patent) after birth
septal defects small holes in the wall between the atria (atrial septal defects) or the ventricles (ventricular septal defects)
tetralogy of Fallot congenital malformation involving four (tetra-) distinct heart defects. pulmonary artery stenosis ventricular septal defect shift of the aorta to the right hypertrophy of the right ventricle
congestive heart failure heart is unable to pump its required amount of blood
coronary artery disease (CAD) disease of the arteries surrounding the heart
Coronary artery disease usually a result of atherosclerosis
atherosclerosis deposition of fatty compounds on the inner lining of the coronary arteries. The ordinarily smooth lining of the artery becomes roughened as the atherosclerotic plaque collects in the artery.
endocarditis inflammation of the inner lining of the heart
hypertensive heart disease high blood pressure affecting the heart
mitral valve prolapse (MVP) improper closure of the mitral valve
murmur extra heart sound, heard between normal beats
pericarditis inflammation of the membrane surrounding the heart
rheumatic heart disease heart disease caused by rheumatic fever
aneurysm local widening (dilation) of an arterial wall
deep vein thrombosis (DVT) blood clot (thrombus) forms in a large vein, usually in a lower limb
hypertension (HTN) high blood pressure
peripheral arterial disease (PAD) blockage of arteries carrying blood to the legs, arms, kidneys and other organs
Raynaud's disease recurrent episodes of pallor and cyanosis primarily in fingers and toes
varicose veins abnormally swollen and twisted veins, usually occurring in the legs
acute coronary syndromes unstable angina and myocardial infarction (heart attack), which are consequences of plaque rupture in coronary arteries
angina (pectoris) chest pain resulting from myocardial ischemia. Stable angina occurs predictably with exertion; unstable angina in chest pain that occurs more often and with less exertion
angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor antihypertensive drug that blocks the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II , causing blood vessels to dilate. It prevents heart attacks, CHF, stroke, and death.
auscultation listening for sounds in blood vessels or other body structures, typically using a stethoscope
beta blocker drug used to treat angina, hypertension, and arrhythmias. It blocks the action of epinephrine at receptor sites on cells, slowing the heartbeat and reducing the workload on the heart.
biventricular pacemaker device enabling ventricles to beat together (in synchrony) so that more blood is pumped out of the heart
bruit abnormal blowing or swishing sound heard during auscultation of an artery or organ
calcium channel blocker drug used to treat angina and hypertension. It dilates blood vessels by blocking the influx of calcium into muscle cells lining vessels
cardiac arrest sudden, unexpected stoppage of heart action, often leading to sudden cardiac death
cardiac tamponade pressure on the heart caused by fluid in the pericardial space
claudication pain, tension, and weakness in a leg after walking has begun, but absence of pain at rest
digoxin drug that treats arrhythmias and strengthens the heartbeat
embolus emboli clot or other substance that travels to a distant location and suddenly blocks a blood vessel
infarction area of dead tissue
nitrates drugs used in the treatment of angina. they dilate blood vessels, increasing blood flow and oxygen to myocardial tissue
nitroglycerin nitrate drug used in the treatment of angina
occlusion closure of a blood vessel due to blockage
palpitations uncomfortable sensations in the chest related to cardiac arrhythmias, such as premature ventricular contractions
patent open
pericardial friction rub scraping or grating noise heard on auscultation of the heart; suggestive of pericarditis
petechiae small, pinpoint hemorrhages
statins drugs used to lower cholesterol in the bloodstream
thrill vibration felt over an area of turmoil in blood flow
vegetations clumps of platelets, clotting proteins, microorganisms, and red blood cells on diseased heart valves
BNP test measurement of BNP (brain natriuretic peptide) in blood
cardiac biomarkers chemicals are measured in the blood as evidence of a heart attack
lipid tests measurement of cholesterol and triglycerides in a blood sample
lipoprotein electrophoresis lipoproteins (combinations of fat and protein) are physically separated and measured in a blood sample
angiography x-ray imaging of blood vessels after injection of contrast material
computed tomography angiography three-dimensional x-ray images of the heart and coronary arteries using computer tomography (64-slice CT scanner)
digital subtraction angiography video equipment and a computer produce x-ray images of blood vessels
electron beam computed tomography electron beams and CT identify calcium deposits in and around coronary arteries to diagnose early CAD
Doppler ultrasound studies sound waves measure blood flow within blood vessels
echocardiography (ECHO) Echoes generated by high-frequency sound waves produce images of the heart
positron emission tomography scan (PET) images show blood flow and myocardial function following uptake of radioactive glucose
technetium Tc 99m sestamibi scan technetium TC 99m sestamibi injected intravenously is taken up in cardiac tissue, where it is detected by scanning
thallium 201 scan concentration of radioactive thallium is measured to give information about blood supply to the heart muscle
cardiac MRI images of the heart are produced using radiowave energy in a magnetic field
cardiac catheterization thin , flexible tube is guided into the heart via a vein or an artery
electrocardiography (ECG) recording of electricity flowing through the heart
holter monitoring an ECG device is worn during a 24-hour period to detect cardiac arrhythmias
stress test exercise tolerance test (ETT) determines the heart's response to physical exertion (stress)
catheter ablation brief delivery of radiofrequency energy to destroy areas of heart tissue that may be causing arrhythmias
coronary artery bypass grafting arteries and veins are anastomosed to coronary arteries to detour around blockages
defibrillation brief discharges of electricity are applied across the chest to stop dysrhythmias
endarterectomy surgical removal of plaque from the inner layer of an artery
extracorporeal circulation heart-lung machine diverts blood from the heart and lungs while the heart is repaired
heart transplantation donor heart is transferred to a recipient
percutaneous coronary intervention balloon-tipped catheter is inserted into a coronary artery to open the artery; stents are put in place
thrombolytic therapy drugs to dissolve clots are injected into the bloodstream of patients with coronary thrombosis
transcatheter aortic valve replacement placement of a balloon-expandable aortic heart valve into the body via a catheter.
Created by: ShellyBee



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