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Digestive System

The organs of the digestive system

TermDefinition
Mouth Opening through which food passes into the body; breaks food into small particles by mastication (chewing) and mixing with saliva
Tongue Consists mostly of skeletal muscle; attached in the posterior region of the mouth. It provides movement of food for mastication, directs food to the pharynx for swallowing, and is a major organ for taste and speech.
Palate Separates the nasal cavity from the oral cavity
Soft palate Posterior portion, not supported by the bone
Hard palate Anterior portion, supported by bone
Uvula Soft v-shaped structure that extends from the soft palate; directs food into the throat
Pharynx, throat Performs the swallowing action that passes food from the mouth into the esophagus
Esophagus 10 in (25 cm) tube that is a passageway for food extending from the pharynx to the stomach.
Stomach J-shaped sac that mixes and stores food. It secretes chemicals for digestion and hormones for local communication control
Peristalsis Involuntary wavelike movements that propel food along the digestive tract and begins in the esophagus.
Cardia Area around the opening of the esophagus
Fundus Proximal domed portion of the stomach
Pylorus Portion of the stomach that connects to the small intestine
Pyloric sphincter Ring of muscle that guards the opening between the stomach and the duodenum
Small intestine 20 ft (6 m) tube extending from the pyloric sphincter to the large intestine.
Digestion Completed in the small intestine
Absorption The passage of nutrients (end products of digestion) from the small intestine to the blood stream, takes place through villi
Villi Tiny finger-like projections that line the walls of the small intestine
Duodenum First 10 to 12 in (25 cm) of the small intestine
Jejunum Second portion of the small intestine, approximately 8 feet (2.4 m) long
Ileum Third portion of the small intestine, approximately 11 feet (3.3 m) long, which connects with the large intestine
Large intestine Approximately 5 feet (1.5 m) long tube that extends form the ileum to the anus. Absorption of water and transit of solid waste products of digestion take place here
Cecum Blind U-shaped pouch that is the first portion of the large intestine
Colon Next portion of the large intestine. Divided into four parts: ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid
Rectum Distal portion of the large intestine, approximately 8-10 in (20 cm) long, extending from the sigmoid colon to the anus
Anus Sphincter muscle at the end of the digestive tract. Provides for elimination of solid waste products of digestion.
Sphincter muscle Ringlike band of muscle fiber that keeps an opening tight
Salivary Glands Produce saliva, which flows into the mouth
Liver Produces bile, which is necessary for the digestion of fats. The liver performs many other functions concerned with digestion and metabolism.
Bile ducts Passageways that carry bile
Hepatic duct Passageway for bile from the liver
Cystic duct Carries bile to and from the gallbladder
Common bile duct The hepatic duct and cystic duct join to convey bile to the duodenum
Biliary tract All the different types of ducts in the digestive system
Gall bladder Small, sac-like structure that stores bile produced by the liver
Pancreas Produces pancreatic juice, which helps digest all types of food and secretes insulin for carbohydrate metabolism
Peritoneum Serous sac-like lining of the abdominal and pelvic cavities
Appendix Small pouch, which has no known function in digestion, attached to the cecum
Vermiform appendix Another name for appendix
Abdomen Portion of the body between the thorax and the pelvis
Created by: StudyNinja274
 

 



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