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Chapter 7 anatomy

The structure of bone tissue suits the function. Which of the following bone tissues is adapted to support weight and withstand torsion stresses? compact bone
Yellow bone marrow contains a large percentage of ________. fat
The cell responsible for secreting the matrix of bone is the ________. osteoblast
What kind of tissue is the forerunner of long bones in the embryo? hyaline cartilage
What can a deficiency of growth hormone during bone formation cause? decreased epiphyseal plate activity
A fracture in the shaft of a bone would be a break in the ________. Diaphysis
The term diploƫ refers to the ________. internal layer of spongy bone in flat bones
Which of the following is a bone marking name that indicates an armlike bar of bone? ramus
Which of the following is implicated in osteoporosis in older women? estrogen deficiency due to menopause
Ossification of the ends of long bones ________. is produced by secondary ossification centers
Which structure allows the diaphysis of the bone to increase in length until early childhood? epiphyseal plate
Which of the following is the single most important stimulus for epiphyseal plate activity during infancy and childhood? Growth Hormone
Which of the following is not a function of the skeletal system? Communication
What is the structural unit of compact bone? the osteon
Bones are covered and lined by a protective tissue called periosteum. The inner (osteogenic) layer consists primarily of ________. osteogenic cells
The periosteum is secured to the underlying bone by ________. perforating (Sharpey's) fibers
The central (Haversian) canal that runs through the core of each osteon is the site of ________. blood vessels and nerve fibers
The resilience of bone is thought to come from which of the following? sacrificial bonds in or between collagen molecules
For intramembranous ossification to take place, which of the following is necessary? Ossification centers form in the fibrous connective tissue membrane.
The process of bones increasing in thickness is known as ________. appositional growth
Bones are constantly undergoing resorption (breaking bone down) for various reasons. Which of the following cells accomplishes this process? osteoclast
The bones in the skull have many different names but what are the boundaries of each bone? Where do they start and stop? Bones of the skull are separated by immobile joints called sutures.
Which of the following can be considered a function of the paranasal sinuses? Sinuses take away a minimal amount of strength from bones while reducing the weight of bones.
Which of the bones of the skull would you most associate with hearing and balance? the temporal bone
Which of the following would be most associated with housing the special sense organs? the facial bones
Which of the following would be most associated with process of warming and humidifying inhaled air? the paranasal sinuses
Which is the best description for the function of the cranial bones? protection of the brain
The sphenoid bone is sometimes referred to as a "key stone" of the skull. This is due to the fact that ________. the sphenoid is in the center of the skull and it articulates (joins) with all of the other bones of the skull (excluding the mandible)
The sella turcica is part of the ________ bone and houses the ________ gland. sphenoid; pituitary
The hypothalamus is a region of the brain controlling many aspects of the endocrine system. It works closely with the pituitary gland. The hypothalamus is directly superior to the pituitary and is therefore ________. superior to the sella turcica
During concussion the brain will move within the cranial cavity.Ironically one of the bone markings that can cause serious damage to the brain is the________. This is ironic because one of the functions of this bone marking is to ________. crista galli; attach to the dura matter holding the brain in place
Curvatures of the spine serve the body by ________. giving additional springiness and flexibility to the spine which absorbs shock
When looking at the range of motion of the various sections of the vertebral column the ________ has the most flexibility cervical spine
The range of motion as well as the direction of motion for the various regions of the spine differs. While the thoracic spine rotates with little flexion or extension. This is due to variation in ________. the orientation of the superior and inferior articular facets
The anatomy of the thoracic cage provides ridged support and protection but at the same time is also flexible and mobile. Of the list below, which feature does not aid in the flexibility and movement of the thoracic cage? the jugular notch
The glenohumeral joint that articulates the humerus to the pectoral girdle is a highly mobile joint. This mobility comes at a cost because ________. the joint is relatively unstable and can easily dislocate
Of the list below select the one that gives the least explanation for the relatively high mobility of the arms. The subscapular notch is a passage way for nerves.
The proximal end of the ulna illustrates the relationship of form and function. The rounded trochlear notch articulates with the hourglass shape of the trochlea. This forms a joint that allows for ________. the hinge like motion of the forearm
The proximal end of the radius illustrates the relationship of form and function. The cup-like surface of the radial head articulates with the rounded shape of the capitulum. This forms a joint that allows for ________. the rotational motion of the forearm
The axial skeleton includes ________. the skull, vertebral column, and rib cage
Which vertebra does not have a body? atlas
The suture that connects the two parietal bones together is the ________. sagittal
The hyoid bone is unique because it ________. is the only bone of the body that does not articulate with any other bone
Along with support, the anterior longitudinal ligament of the vertebral column also acts to ________. prevent hyperextension of the spine
Paranasal sinuses are found in which of these facial bones? maxillae
Which of the following is an abnormal lateral curvature of the vertebral column often seen in the thoracic region scoliosis
Which part of the vertebral column receives the most stress by bearing most of the weight of the body? the lumbar region
Which bone acts as a moveable base for the tongue? hyoid bone
Thoracic vertebrae differ from the other vertebrae in that they have ________. costal facets
What is the major function of the axial skeleton? provide central support for the body and protect internal organs
What are the major functions of the intervertebral discs? to absorb shock and provide flexibility to the spine
A fibrous joint that is a peg-in-socket is called a ________ joint. gomphosis
The cruciate ligaments of the knee ________. prevent hyperextension of the knee
Articular cartilage found at the ends of the long bones serves to ________. provide a smooth surface at the ends of synovial joints
A joint united by fibrocartilage tissue that usually permits a slight degree of movement is a ________. symphysis
On the basis of structural classification, which is a fibrous joint? syndesmosis
Connective tissue sacs lined with synovial membrane that act as cushions in places where friction develops are called ________. bursae
Articulations permitting only slight degrees of movement are ________. amphiarthroses
Which of the following are cartilaginous joints? synchondroses
The gliding motion of the wrist uses ________ joints. plane
the ligaments that protect the alignment of the femoral and tibial condyles and limit the movement of the femur anteriorly and posteriorly are called ________. cruciate ligaments
Bending your head back until it hurts is an example of ________. hyperextension
In the classification of joints, which of the following is true? All synovial joints are freely movable.
Synarthrotic joints ________. are immovable joints
Fibrous joints are classified as ________. sutures, syndesmoses, and gomphoses
In symphysis joints the articular surfaces of the bones are covered with ________. hyaline cartilage
Synovial fluid is present in joint cavities of freely movable joints. Which of the following statements is true about this fluid? it contains hyaluronic acid.
Which of the following statements defines synchondroses? cartilaginous joints where hyaline cartilage unites the ends of bones
What are menisci (articular discs)? wedges of fibrocartilage that partially or completely divide the synovial cavity
Which of the following is a true statement regarding gliding movements? Gliding movements occur at the intercarpal and intertarsal joints.
What is moving a limb away from the midline of the body along the frontal plane called? abduction
The terms inversion and eversion pertain only to the ________. feet
The hip joint is a good example of a(n) ________ synovial joint. multiaxial
Which of the following movements does NOT increase or decrease the angle between bones? rotation
Compared to the shoulder, displacements of the hip joints are ________. rare because of the ligament reinforcement
Which ligament of the knee initiates the knee-jerk reflex when tapped? the patellar ligament
Football players often sustain lateral blows to the extended knee. Which of the following is (are) damaged as a result? tibial collateral ligament, medial meniscus, and anterior cruciate ligament
Pointing the toes is an example of ________. plantar flexion
Which of the following is a true statement? The greater tubercle of the humerus articulates at the coracoid process of the scapula.
Presence of a synovial cavity, articular cartilage, synovial membrane, and ligaments are characteristics of what type of joint? hinge joint
Extracapsular ligaments stabilizing the knee include ________. fibular and tibial collateral ligaments, which prevent lateral or medial rotation
Baseball pitchers often require "Tommy John" surgery to repair damage to their elbow. Which ligament would this surgery target? ulnar collateral ligament
An example of an interosseous fibrous joint is ________. the radius and ulna along its length
Which of the following statements best describes angular movements? They change (increase or decrease) the angle between two bones.
Saddle joints have concave and convex surfaces. Identify a saddle joint of the skeleton. carpometacarpal joint of the thumb
Tendon sheaths ________. act as friction-reducing structures
Which of the following is NOT strictly a part of a synovial joint? tendon sheath
All of the following are factors that influence synovial joint stability EXCEPT? number of bones in the joint
Performing "jumping jacks" requires ________. abduction and adduction
Moving your jaw forward, causing an underbite, is called ________. protraction
Antibiotic treatment would be recommended for ________. Lyme disease
Created by: 2266618370034789