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Nervous Sys1

Central Nervous System Brain and Spinal Cord
Peripheral Nervous Systems Nerve tissues that lie in the "outer regions" of the nervous system - extend to the extremities
Cranial Nerves originate in the brain
Spinal Nerves originate in the spinal cord
Afferent Division sensory pathways - towards the brain
Efferent Division motor pathways - away from the brain
Somatic Nervous System carry information to the skeletal muscles. Voluntary
Autonomic Nervous System carry information to the smooth and cardiac muscles, and glands. Involuntary
Sympathetic NS "fight or flight"
Parasympathetic NS return to resting activities "rest and repair"
Glial Cells DO NOT conduct impulses but support the functions of neurons
Neurons excitable cells that conduct nerve implulses
Astrocytes type of glial cells that help form the Blood Brain Barrier
Microglia type of glial cells that are used for phagocytosis
Oligodendrocytes helps produce fatty myelin sheath around nerve fibers in the CNS
Schwann Cells helps produce fatty myelin sheath around nerve fibers in the PNS
Node of Ranvier microscopic gaps between Schwann Cells
Multipolar Neuron One Axon, several dendrites, mostly found in the CNS
Bipolar Neuron Least common type of neuron, found in retina, inner ear, and olfactory pathway (nasal).
Reflex Arc A signal conduction route
Potential Energy The difference in ion concentration across the plasma membrane
Resting Potential -70mV
Depolarization Na+ causes the movement of the membrane potential to zero
Repolarization K+ causes the movement back to -70mV
Action Potential AKA- Nerve Impulse
Refractory Period after the threshold potential is surpassed and the axon will not respond stimuli
Relative Refractory Period after the absolute refractory period, can only be stimulated if the stimulus is really strong
Saltatory Conduction Action Potential seems to "Leap" from node to node
Anesthetics Block pain, inhibit the opening of the Na+ channels
Marcaine Anesthetic- used in dental procedures
Procaine Anesthetic- used to block signals in sensory pathways of the spinal cord
Benzocaine Found in over the counter products that release pain with teething, sore throats, and other ailments
Neurotransmitters How neurons talk to one another