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Renaissance + Reform

What were people doing during the Crusades? What effect did this have? During the Crusades people were traveling a lot. Through this people were exposed to new ideas.
What did new ideas lead them to question? they questioned the idea that there is nothing else in the world besides the small place they live. There are many other products, ideas, cultures, etc.
What are two things that they realized? Latin is not the only language and priests are not the only educated people
What do the people start to doubt? The bible
What else are the people exposed to? What does this create? They are now exposed to new products. So, they want to get more new products creating more travel and trade.
What changes as a result of travel and trade? How does it change? The economic system. The change is to mercantilism/commercialism.
What does mercantilism/commercialism mean? People doing more business which makes a country wealthy.
What does the change in the economic system cause for the Jews? Why? The Jews are now no longer needed as urgently to lend money from because there is now a credit system
What three things create a new middle class? The influx of precious metals, finding new continents, and many more inventions
What were two new methods of antisemitism? Expulsions and ghettos
How did expulsions in Italy work? At the time, Italy was not a country but had it's own city states. Each city state expelled Jews small groups at a time. So, Jews were reluctant to build religious places b/c they didn't know how long they would be there. Often Jews would get invited back
How did ghettos work? When Jews weren't expelled, they were told that they had to live in special Jewish quarters.
Around when did the renaissance and reformation happen? Primarily during the 15th and 16th centuries.
What is humanism? Humanism is an interest in life of humans in this world.
Where did humanism start? Why? When? It started in Italy because of the Muslim conquest of Constantinople, Turkey in 1453
Why did humanism start in Italy? All the Greek Orthodox and Roman Catholic scholars left for Italy because they were kicked out of Constantinople. Once in Italy, the scholars develop and spread the ideas of humanism.
How did people's focus change? Before ppl. were only focused on religiosity and the world to come, now they are focused on the present.
Where did the renaissance start? Italy
Why did the renaissance start? People became more interested in old texts, were not just blindly listening to what the pope/priest/monk said, and had a renewed secular curiousity.
With the start of the renaissance, what do Christians now want to learn? What happens as a result? They want to learn what the bible actually says and even learn Hebrew. As a result, Christians start questioning their priest and religion.
How were the Jews actively involved in the renaissance? They were patrons (provided money to artists) and active participants
What is considered one of the most valuable inventions for the Jews? The printing press
Why was the printing press created? It was created because people wanted to spread knowledge
How did a printing press work? It had little square letters, you would line the letters up, roll ink on the letters, then press down a piece of paper and repeat
As a result of the printing press, what was not such a tragic loss? Book burnings
Did Jews only print Jewish books? No, non-Jews/Christians printed Jewish books too
How did the printing press create competition and fighting? Many publishers started fighting because they wanted to print books.
What famous Jewish book does a fight occur over? Why? The Rambam's Mishna Torah causes a fight over who can publish it. One printer was mad that he couldn't print the book and told Christian authorities that it had anti-Christian ideas. This caused many book burnings.
What happens as a result of Jewish books being accused of heresy (anti-Christian)? How has this evolved? Reliable rabbis start self-censoring their own books so that the Church won't find anything anti-Christian and burn their books. Nowadays, this has evolved into Haskamot- letters of recommendation from rabbis on sefarim.
Who was Johannes Reuchlin? When did he live? Johannes Reuchlin was a Christian scholar who lived from 1455-1522
What does Johannes Reuchlin do? He challenges the view of the Dominican church.
What does Johannes Reuchlin learn? From who? How does this knowledge affect him? He learns Hebrew language, literature, and kabbalah. He learned all this from prominent rabbis. Despite this, he stays a strong Christian and encourages but doesn't force Jews to convert
Who was Johannes Pfefferkorn? He was an apostate
What is an apostate? What is apostate in Hebrew? An apostate is a Jew that converts to Christianity. Apostate is Meshumad in Hebrew.
What does Johannes Pfefferkorn do? He attacks the gemara/talmud, denounces it in front of the church, and tells them it has anti-Christian ideas. So, he gets an imperial order to collect all of the talmud and other Hebrew books.
Where did Rabbi Joselman live? What was he known as? He lived in Rosheim and was a helper to the Jews.
How does R' Joselman help the Jews against Johannes Pfefferkorn? He gets Johannes Reuchlin to help him
How does Reuchlin help the Jews? He disproves Pfefferkorn's accusations which causes the church to suspend the edict and not all the books are collected.
Why did Pfefferkorn *really* want to collect the Jewish books? He wanted to ransom the books back to the Jews
What are indulgences? How do they work? They are "being a good Christian" points. When a saint died, he had extra indulgences and the church would collect them. Then, the church would sell the extra merit to someone about to die that needed extra to get to heaven.
Are Christians only studying the new testament? What does this cause? No, Christians are now studying the old testament in Hebrew and earlier versions of the bible. Christians get upset because in the testaments it describes Jesus as living a simple life.
What else causes Christians to get upset? What do they want? They get upset because all the church is doing is collecting money. They want to live a life according to the bible which the priests and monks were not doing.
Who was Martin Luther? When did he live? Martin Luther (ML) was an Augustinian monk and lived from 1483-1546
What made ML disgusted? What did he do as a result? He was disgusted with the church's greedy ways and rebelled against the church.
What does ML do on October 31, 1517? He nails 95 theses to the Castle Church of Wittenburg's church door.
What does it say in the theses? What is this considered? They said that the church's dogma is against true Christianity. This is considered the reformation of Christianity.
What are protestants? What do they do? Protestants follow ML and are protesting the church
What is the difference in belief between the Catholics and the Protestants? Catholics believe that Jesus was the son of god and have a pope, while Protestants believe that Jesus was the prophet of god and don't have a pope.
According to some Rabbis, what is the major difference between Catholicism and Protestantism? Catholicism is avoda zara because they believe in the holy trinity and Protestantism is apikorsus because they are also monotheistic.
What is avoda zara? What is apikorsus? Avoda zara is worshiping more than one god/idols. Apikorsus or heresy is belief or opinion against religious beliefs. While both are bad, avoda zara is worse than apikorsus.
How do ML's ideas get spread throughout the world? The printing press
What is counter reformation? When did it happen? Counter reformation was the church correcting its ways and fighting back against the Protestants. It took place after ML died in 1560.
What was ML's opinion on the Jews in the beginning? Why was this his opinion? IN the beginning, Ml thought he was going to include and redeem the Jews. He said the only reason Jews didn't want to convert to Christianity is because they were being treated horribly.
What does ML promise the Jews if they convert? Happiness in this world and the next
How does ML's opinion on the Jews change? He become extremely antisemitic.
What does he tell his followers to do to the Jews? He tells them to show no mercy and destroy the Jews.
Is it probable that ML ever met a Jew? No, he lived in Germany- a place with no Jews
Does the Lutheran Church still hate Jews? When did this change? In 1994, the Lutheran church finally said that ML was wrong and they should be antisemitic.
What was the 30 Years War? When? Where? It was a war between the Catholics and Protestants and took place from 1618-1648. It took place in Central Europe.
Created by: ebab