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AP Euro

The Western Heritage Chapters 13,14,15

QuestionAnswer
Cardinal Mazarin The ruler before Louis XIV who, along with Cardinal Richelieu, laid the groundwork for absolutism to be enacted by Louis XIV in France. The two cardinals also restricted some rights provided in the Edict of Nantes, causing Fronde, a rebellion.
Cardinal Richelieu The ruler in France during the 30's year's war, who along with Cardinal Mazarin, laid the groundwork for absolutism to be enacted by Louis XIV in France. Believed in "One Ruler, One Faith, and One Law."
Cavaliers and Roundheads Cavaliers-Supporters of Charles I; Roundheads-Supporters of Oliver Cromwell and Parliament
Charles I Protestant. Caused a Civil war in England when he invaded the Long Parliament, which would not support his attempt to gain enough money and an army to suppress the rebellion in Scotland.
Charles II Catholic sympathies. Reinstated the English Monarchy. Passed Test Act, which required army people to swear an oath against Catholisism
Nicolaus Copernicus Poland. Heliocentric. "On the Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres." Not an accurate model of planets' locations.
Tycho Brahe Danish. Kepler was his assistant. Thought Mercury and Venus went around sun, but still advocated geocentricity.
Johannes Kepler German. Discovered 3 laws of planetary motion. First huge advocate of heliocentricity. Brahe's assistant. "The New Astronomy."
Galileo Galilei "Starry Messenger." "Letters on Sunspots."
Newton Principia Mathematica
Descarte "Discourse on Method", "Meditations"
Hobbes "Leviathon" - All men are inherently evil, so absolutism is needed to keep them in control.
Locke Second Treatise of Government(good people, social contract), Essay Concerning Human Understanding (tabula rasa)
Maragaret Cavendish "Observations Upon Experimental Philosophy". Scientific Revolution.
Pascal "Pensees" 2 truths in Christianity: god exists, human being corrupted of him.
aristocratic resurgence Nobility's reaction to monarchy's power. 1. Made it more difficult to become a noble 2. Reserved important appointments. 3. Used existing authority such as parliaments 4. Increased financial position
banalites Feudal dues to which nearly all French peasants were subject.
seignor French landlord who require banalites in the form of money and/or corvee
corvee French word for forced service
robot In Prussia and Austria, service which serfs provided their landlords.
Tull wrong-got rid of fertilizer right-iron plow to turn earth, drill instead of cast seeds
Townsend crop rotation
Robert Bakewell Better animal reproduction
Arthur Young Edited "Annals of Agriculture". Secretary of British Board of Agriculture.
enclosures intended to make land yield higher profits, but tough to make, led to riots
water frame Richard Arkwright
spinning Jenny James Hargreaves
first steam engine Thomas Newcomen
made steam engine better James Watt
new puddling process-new process for melting and stirring molten ore Henry Cort
ghettos communities in which jews resided
Aleksei Romanov Son of Peter the Great who attempted to conspire with Charles XII of Sweden during the Great Northern War. Because of this, he was sentenced to death by his father.
Boyars The old nobles in Russia.
Charles VI Habsburg king who spent most of his rule attempting to ensure the enforcement of a document called Pragmatic Sanction which allowed his family to keep rule and inheritance.
James I Catholic. Ruled England in an absolute manner. Didn't use parliament to receive income; instead used his own tax and alternate sources of income.
James II Catholic. Repealed Test Act, an act passed by Charles II forcing military to reject Catholicism. This led to the glorious revolution.
Jansenists A protestant group who opposed Jesuit teachings, especially those which claimed that original sin was caused by free will.
John III Sobieski Polish leader who rescued Vienna from Turkish siege.
John Law Instituted the Mississippi company, which took on England's national debt and advocated paper money. When investors sold their stock for money and money for gold, they ran out of gold. Led to Mississippi bubble, which made economy suck.
Junkers German noble landlords
Maria Theresa Daughter of Charles VI, who wanted to allow her to have the full inheritance through the Pragmatic Sanction.
Peter the Great Cut beards off Boyars, built St. Petersburg which was similar to Versailles, made 8 colleges or small groups of advisors, Westernized Russia
Philip V Supported by Louis XIV in the War of Spanish Succession
Sir Robert Walpole Took over rule of England as an adviser to the king, George I.
William of Orange and Mary Protestants. Made Catholic James II flee to France in the bloodless glorious revolution.
League of Augsburg England, Spain, Sweden, United Provinces, Germany
Long and Short Parliament Formed by Charles I in an attempt to gain funding for war.
Petition of Right Charles I in England agreed that no soldiers should be quarters, no forced loans should be imposed.
Revocation of the Edict of Nantes Catholic Louis XIV revokes it
Table of Ranks Established by Peter the Great to make nobility in Russia based off of willingness to serve instead of lineage.
Great Northern War Peter the Great wants to expand to Sweden and invade Charles XII's lands. Russia wins a good amount of land when they end the war in the treaty of Nystad.
War of Spanish Succession Louis XIV supports Philip V of Spain and Stuart House of England. England doesn't. England wins. Hanover. Peace of Utrecht.
Nine Year's War Louis XIV wants to expand North into the Holy Roman Empire, but is shut down.
Created by: elefantman