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Anatomy & Phys

Study Guide Chapter 10 Muscular Tissue

QuestionAnswer
Major characteristic of muscle tissue Electrical Excitability The ability to respond to certain stimuli by producing electrical signals called action potentials
Major characteristic of muscle tissue Conductivity The ability to transmit electrical impulses
Major characteristics of muscle tissue Contractractility When tension (force of contraction) the muscle shortens and movement occurs.
Major characteristics of muscle tissue Extensibility The ability of muscular tissue to stretch, within limits, without being damaged or ability to extend fiber length
Major characteristics of muscle tissue Elasticity The ability of muscular tissue to return to its original length and shape after contraction or extension or to recoil back to original length
Neuromuscular Junction The place where an axon from a motor neuron comes into close contact with the muscular fiber
A whole skeletal muscle Contains many muscle fibers that are not alike in composition
Each skeletal muscle fiber contains Sarcolemma The plasma membrane of a muscle cell
Each skeletal muscle fiber contains Sarcoplasm The Cytoplasm of a muscle fiber
Each skeletal muscle fiber contains Sarcoplasmic Reticulum(SR) The smooth endoplasmic reticulum which is a fluid filled system of membranous sacs that stores calcium ion
Each skeletal muscle fiber contains Transverse T-tubules Tunnel in from the surface toward the center of each muscle fiber contains Invaginations of the sarcolemma which are filled with interstitial fluid
Muscle electrical impulse travels through the sarcolemma and Dives into the T-tubules Which results in electrical impulses to spread quickly throughout the muscle fiber
Myofibrils Are contractile organelles of skeletal muscle
Within the Myofibrils Are smaller protein structure called myofilaments
Myofilament Contain both Thick and Thin filaments that are directly involved in the Contractile process
Thin filaments Composed of globular actin proteins that form bead-like strands .Embedded in the strands are Troponin and Tropomyosin
Thick filaments Are Myosin proteins composed of a Sticky Head and Tail . Myosin proteins overlap to form the thick filament. Sticky head protrude from the surface of the filament in all directions
Contractile proteins Proteins that generate force during muscle contractions
Myosin Contractile protein that makes up thick filament; molecule consists of a tail and two myosin heads, which bind to myosin-binding sites on actin molecules of thin filament during muscle contraction
Actin Contractile protein that is the main component of thin filament; each actin molecule has a myosin-binding site where myosin head of thick filament binds during muscle contraction.
Troponin Regulatory protein that is a component of thin filament; when calcium ions (Ca2+) bind to troponin, it changes shape; this conformational change moves tropomyosin away from myosin-binding sites on actin molecules, and muscle contraction subsequently begins as myosin binds to actin
Tropomyosin Regulatory protein that is a component of thin filament; when skeletal muscle fiber is relaxed, tropomyosin covers myosin-binding sites on actin molecules, thereby preventing myosin from binding to actin.
Affinity of Myosin for Actin Myosin sticky heads have a very strong affinity for the myosin-binding sites on actin
Arrangement of Thick and Thin Filaments in a Myofibril Thick and Thin filaments overlap each other. The pattern of their overlap creates the Striations
Striations A muscle tissue that features repeating functional units called sarcomeres which the pattern of their dark and light filaments overlap
Sarcomere Compartments that are the basic functional units of a myofibril
Z Discs Narrow, plate-shaped regions of dense protein material that separates one sarcomere from the next
M Line Region in center of H zone that contains proteins that hold thick filaments together at center of sarcomere
Molecular Events of Muscle Contraction Sliding Filaments Mechanism Are Sliding of Thick and thin filaments against each other Thin Filaments move Toward the M Line Thick Filaments stay Stationary Sarcomeres are Shorten
Molecular Events of Muscle Contraction Thin Filaments Are Myosin that Move Toward the M Line
Molecular Events of Muscle Contraction Thick Filaments Stay stationary
Molecular Events of Muscle Contraction Sarcomere Shortens
Role of Calcium in Sliding Calcium Ions bind to troponin Troponin Changes its Shape Tropomyosin pulls away form myosin-binding sites on actin molecules
Steps of Filament Sliding Myosin binds to myosin-binding site on actin Myosin pulls thin filaments Actin slides against myosin toward the M line(center of sarcomere)
The Role of Calcium Ion and ATP in the Sliding Filaments ATP is used to Break the bond between Myosin and actin Building the bond requires Calcium Ion Breaking the bond requires ATP The cycle of binding and breaking repeats over and over again
A Relaxed Muscle Fiber Calcium ions channels are Closed in the membrane of Sarcoplasmic reticulum Troponin holds tropomyosin in position to Block Myosin-Binding sites on actin
Steps of Excitation-Contraction Coupling(know in detail for test) Step 1, 2, 3 Step 1---Primary Motor area of the Cerebral Cortex of the brain stimulates the Motor Neuron in the spinal cord, Step 2---Axon of motor neuron begins to transmit electrical impulse towards the axon terminal Step 3--- Impulses arrives at the axon terminal ----Voltage-gated calcium Ion(Ca++) channels is open in the membrane of the Axon Terminal ----Calcium Ions diffuse from interstitial fluid into the Axon terminal
Steps of Excitation-Contraction Coupling(know in detail for test Step 4,5 Step 4----Calcium ions stimulates Movement of Vesicles To the Axon Membrane -----Acetylcholine(ACH) is released into the Synaptic Cleft by Exocytosis Step 5----Acetylcholine binds to the ACh Receptors -----ACh receptors are located on Ligand-Gated Sodium Ion (Na+) channels embedded within the sarcole
Steps of Excitation-Contraction Coupling(know in detail for test Step 6 Step 6---Binding of ACh to ACh receptors opens Ligand-Gated Na+ Channel ---Small Cations, mostly Na+, flow from interstitial fluid across the sarcolemma into the sarcoplasm, which generates an electrical impulse in the muscle fiber ----Impulse Travels Along the sarcolem
Steps of Excitation-Contraction Coupling(know in detail for test Step 7,8 Step 7---Electrical Impulses dives down into the T-tubules ----As electrical impulses propagates into the T-Tubules, it causes Voltage-Gated Calcium ion(Ca++) Channels in the membrane of sarcoplasmic reticulum(SR) to open Step 8 --Calcium Ions diffuse Out of the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum through these calcium into the Scaroplasm
Steps of Excitation-Contraction Coupling(know in detail for test Step 9 Step 9--Calcium Ions binds to the binding sites on troponin molecules of the thin filament ---Troponin changes it shape ----Tropomyosin pulls away from binding sites on actin molecules ---Myosin sticky head attaches to myosin-binding sites on actin ----Thin filaments slide toward the M-line(center of sarcomere) ---- Sarcomere shortens
Steps of Excitation-Contraction Coupling(know in detail for test Step 10 Step 10--Calcium ion pumps Located in the Membrane of SR pumps Calcium ions form Sarcoplasm back into the SR ---An Active Transport mechanism that requires ATP ---Elimination of Calcium ion from the Sarcoplasm stops stops muscle contraction
Role of Acetylcholinesterase(AChE) An enzyme located in the synaptic cleft that Break down ACh within the synaptic cleft ACh levels decrease Muscle fiber stops contracting
Muscle metabolism Requires ATP ATP is used for ---Breaking Bonds between myosin and actin ---Pumping calcium ions back into SR
Sources of ATP(all three) IN DETAIL FOR TEXT Immediate:Creatine Phosphate Short-term:Anaerobic Glycolysis Long-Term:Aerobic Cellular respiration(requires oxygen)
Creatine Phosphate (Know in detail for test) ----Muscle fibers store creatine phosphate ----CrPO4 is a readily available source of ATP ---Cr-PO4 +ATP--Creatine + ATP ---Used for quick bursts of activity(Up to maximum 15 seconds)
Anaerobic Glycolysis(Know in detail for test) ---ATP production after creatine phosphate stores have been depleted -----Takes place in cytosol Glucose--Pyruvic acid(--Lactic acid) 2 ATPs are produced for every glucose molecule Used for slightly longer periods of physical activity(up to 30-40 seconds)
Aerobic Cellular Respiration(Know in detail for test) --Requires Oxygen ---Takes place in the Mitochondrion --Used for long periods of physical activity ---Continues where anaerobic glycolysis ends --Pyruvic acid--CO2+H2O+heat ---34 more ATP's are produced
Cardiac Muscle(Characteristics and Functions) --The Muscle tissue of the heart ---Controlled by the ANS(Autonomic Nervous System ---SAME ARRANGEMENT of Protein and bands ---Intercalated Disc: thickening of sarcolemma that connects the cardiac muscle fibers to one another ---Disc contain Desmosome and Gap Junctions --Mitochondria are Larger and more Numerous that in Skeletal Muscle --Cardiac Muscle depends largely on Aerobic cellular respiration and requires a Constant Supply of oxygen --Can Also Use Lactic Acid produced by skelet
Anatomy of Smooth Muscle --The muscle tissue of All Organs(Except the Heart) ---Striations:None in smooth muscle --T-Tubules:None in Smooth Muscle --Controlled by the ANS(Autonomic Nervous System)
Control of Smooth and Cardiac Muscle(Effects of Sympathetic and Parasympathetic divisions) ---The Autonomic Nervous System(ANS) ---Sympathetic Subdivision prepares the body for energy expanding emergency situations: "Fight or Flight" division Parasympathetic Subdivision: Maintains the body during non-energy, Non-Emergency Situations; The "Resting and Digesting division
Created by: rbissoon29