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Ancient Rome

Key Ideas and Terms from the Ancient Rome Unit.

Etruscans ancestors of the Romans; came to Italy after starving in Asia Minor
Romulus founder of Rome who became king; killed his brother in a dispute over the size of the city walls
Remus founder of Rome who was killed by his brother
Palatine Hill Place where the she-wolf Lupa raised the twin brothers. Eventually became the site of the the new city of Rome.
Rhea Silvia and Mars Birth Parents of Romulus and Remus.
Sabines tribe whose women were stolen by the men of Rome
tebenna clothing that later became the Roman toga
April 21, 753 BCE date of the founding of Rome according to legend
consul one of two executive leaders of the Roman Republic; served for one year and ran the government and army. Typically a military leader.
veto means "I forbid" and could be used to stop the passage of laws
Senate group of 300 wealthy male citizens who served for life and proposed laws
praetor leader who ran the court system in the Roman Republic
Twelve Tables foundation of all laws used during the Roman Republic
patricians wealthy aristocrats and landowners. Originally the only people allowed to be senators.
plebeians poor and working class people: soldiers, artists, farmers, craftsmen. Allowed to participate in government only by voting.
SPQR Senatus Populusque Romanus: motto of the Roman Republic
tribunes leaders chosen to watch out for the rights of the plebeians in the government of the Roman Republic
Punic Wars three wars fought between Carthage and Rome
Hannibal leader of Carthage during the 2nd Punic War. Was exiled and committed suicide after his defeat.
Augustus first emperor of Rome; defeated Marc Antony; once called Octavian; ruled for over 40 years
Pax Romana period of peace time under Augustus
Praetorian Guard security guards of the emperor who often determined who would be the next emperor
Caligula One of Rome's worst rulers. Known for his madness and brutality. Was killed by his own Praetorian Guard.
Claudius Became Emperor after Caligula's death. Born with a childhood illness. Conquered Britain during his reign.
Colosseum Roman arena used for public entertainment; could hold 50,000 people and be filled with water for mock naval battles
Forum Roman marketplace
Nero Known for his cruelty and greed. Persecuted Christians. Very artistic and liked to play music. Was sentenced to death by Senate, but committed suicide instead.
Cincinnatus Roman statesman who was given total power to defend Rome; defeated the enemy and gave up all power
Julius Caesar general who conquered Gaul and Egypt; asked to be voted dictator for life, but was killed by the Senate because he threatened their power
Brittania northernmost province of the Roman Empire; now called the United Kingdom
Gaul modern-day France; conquered by Julius Caesar
Carthage north African empire defeated by the Romans in the Punic Wars
Latin language that unified the provinces of the Roman Empire
120,000,000 number of people in the Roman Empire at its height
2,200,000 number of square miles in the Roman Empire at its height
public baths place of exercise, socializing, and discussing politics
villa large home for wealthy patricians
Festival of Saturnalia public holiday where Romans gambled, played games, and ate; dedicated to the god Saturn
Jesus Christ born and lived in the Roman province of Judea
Gospels writings about the "good news" Jesus spread to his disciples
crucifixion Roman practice of torture where a person is nailed to a cross
foreign mercenaries soldiers from areas outside the Roman Empire that were hired for the army
barbarians tribes who attacked the Roman Empire: Vandals, Visigoths, Huns
Byzantine Empire eastern half of the Roman Empire that survived until the 1400's when the western half fell to the barbarians
war elephants animals used by Hannibal of Carthage to attack Rome
checks and balances safeguards in the government of the Roman Republic so that no one had too much power
Hadrian Great Traveler. Realized Rome was to large to defend and pulled armies back to defensive points. Created Hadrian's wall in in Britain.
Constantine Known as Constantine the Great. First christian emperor. Reunited the Eastern and Western parts of the Roman Empire during his reign.
Created by: spencer.fullmer