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Chapter Three:

Cells and Tissues (I)

Cells The basic biological unit of living organisms, containing a nucleus and a variety of organelles enclosed by a limited membrane
Generalized Cell Cells that have different functions
Nucleus A dense central body in most cells containing the genetic information of the cell
Nuclear Envelope (Nuclear Membrane) A double membrane barrier surrounding the nucleus
Nuclear Pores Penetrate through the fused regions
Nucleoli Small spherical bodies in the cell nucleus; function in ribosome synthesis
Chromatin A loose network of bumpy threads formed when DNA is combined with protein
Chromosomes Barlike bodies of tightly coiled chromatin; visible during cell division
Plasma Membrane A fragile, transparent barrier that contains the cell contents and separates them from the surrounding environment
Microvilli Tiny fingerlike projections that greatly increase the cell's surface area for absorption
Tight Junctions Impermeable junctions that bind cells together into leakproof sheets
Desmosomes Anchoring junctions that prevent cells subjected to mechanical stress from being pulled apart
Gap Junctions Commonly seen in the heart and between embryonic cells, function mainly to allow communication
Connexons Hollow cylinders composed of proteins that span the entire width of the abutting membranes
Cytoplasm The cellular material outside the nucleus and inside the plasma membrane
Cytosol Semitransparent fluid that suspends the other elements, nutrients and a variety pg other solutes
Organelles Metabolic machinery of the cell
Inclusions Chemical substances that may or may not be present, depending on the specific cell type
Mitochondria The rodlike cytoplasmic organelles responsible for ATP generation
Ribosomes Tiny, bilobed, dark bodies made of proteins and one variety of RNA
Endoplasmic Reticulum A system of fluid-filled cisterns that coil and twist through the cytoplasm
Rough ER Cell's membrane factory ; contains ribosomes
Smooth ER Communicates with the rough variety,it plays no role in protein synthesis
Golgi Apparatus A stack of flattened membranous sacs, associated with swarms of tiny vesicles (modify and package proteins)
Transport Vesicles Bring proteins to the Golgi Apparatus by the rough ER
Secretory Vesicles A vesicle that mediates the vesicular transport of cargo
Lysosomes Membranous "bags" containing powerful digestive enzymes
Peroxisomes Membranous sacs containing powerful oxidase enzymes that use molecular Oxygen to detoxify a number of harmful or poisonous substances
Free Radicals Highly reactive chemicals with unpaired electrons hat can scramble the structure of proteins and nucleic acids
Cytoskeleton An elaborate network of protein structures extends throughout the cytoplasm
Intermediate Filaments Strong/stable ropelike help form desmosomes and provide internal guy wires to resist pulling forces on the cell
Microfilaments Most involved in cell motility and in producing changes in cell shape
Microtubules Determine the overall shape of a cell and the distribution of organelles
Centrioles A minute body found near the nucleus of the cell composed of microtubules; active in cell division
Cilia Whiplike cellular extensions that move substances long the cell surface
Flagella Long, whiplike extensions of the cell membrane of some bacteria and of sperm; serve to propel the cell
Solution A homogeneous mixture of two or more components
Solvent The substance present in the largest amount in a solution
Solutes Components or substances present in smaller amounts
Intracellular Fluid A solution containing small amounts of gases, nutrients, and salts,dissolved in water
Interstitial Fluid The fluid that continuously bathes the exterior of our cells
Selective Permeability A barrier allows some substances t pass through it while excluding others
Passive Transport Processes Substances are transported across he membrane without any energy input from the cell
Active Transport Processes The cell provides the metabolic energy (ATP) that drives the transport process
Diffusion The process by which molecules (and ions) tend to scatter themselves throughout the available space
Concentration Gradient The kinetic energy of the molecules themselves; high to low concentration
Simple Diffusion The unassisted diffusion of solutes through the plasma membrane
Osmosis Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane such as the plasma membrane
Facilitated Diffusion Provides passage for certain needed substances that are both lipid-insoluble and too large to pass through the membrane pores
Filtration The process by which water and solutes are forced through a membrane by fluid, or hydrostatic pressure
Pressure Gradient Difference in hydrostatic (fluid) pressure the drives filtration
Solute Pumping Require protein carriers that combine reversibly with the substances to be transported across the membrane
Solute Pumps Uses ATP to energize carrier proteins
Sodium-Potassium Pump Simultaneously carries sodium ions out of and potassium ions into the cell is absolutely necessary for normal transmission of impulses by nerve cells
Bulk Transport Help transport some substances that cannot get through the plasma membrane in any other way
Exocytosis Moves substances out of cells
Endocytosis Moves substances into the cell
Phagocytosis The ingestion of solid particles by cells
Fluid-Phase Endocytosis (Pinocytosis) The engulfing of extracellular fluid by cells
Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis The main cellular mechanism for taking up specific target molecules
Cell Life Cycle The series of changes a cell goes through from the time it is formed until it divides
Interphase The cell grows and carries on its usual metabolic activities
Cell Division A cell reproduces itself
Mitosis Division of the nucleus
Prophase As cells division begins, the chromatin threads coil and shorten so that visible barlike bodies appear
Chromaid The two strands that each chromosome is actually made up of
Centromere A small buttonlike body that holds a chromatid together
Mitotic Spindle A macromolecular machine that segregates chromosomes to two daughter cells during mitosis
Metaphase The chromosomes cluster and become aligned at the metaphase plate so that straight line of chromosomes is seen
Anaphase The centromeres that have held the chromatids together split
Telophase The chromosomes at opposite ends of the cell uncoil to become threadlike chromatin again
Cytokinesis The division of the cytoplasm
Cleavage Furrow It eventually squeezes or pinches the original cytoplasmic mass into to parts
Gene Biological unit of heredity located in chromatin; transmits hereditary information
Enzymes Biological catalysts that regulate chemical reactions in the cells
Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) The nucleic acid that contain ribose; acts in protein synthesis
Transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules Small cloverleaf-shaped molecules
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) Helps form the ribosomes, where proteins are built
Messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules Long, single nucleotide strands that resemble half of a DNA molecule and carry the "message" containing instructions for protein synthesis
Transcription The transfer of information from DNA's base sequence into complimentary base sequence of nRNA
Triplet Each three-base sequence specifying a particular amino acid on the DNA gene
Codons The corresponding three-base sequences on mRNA
Translation Phase The language of nucleic acids is "translated" into the language of proteins
Anticodon A special three-base sequence
Created by: sarah23me1



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