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A and P test 2

QuestionAnswer
_______ do the binding Proteins
Tight Junctions -Proteins of adjacent membranes fuse together -Needed for barriers -Prevents movement of muscles between cells
Gap Junctions -Cell Membranes dont touch -Hollow tubes connect to other cell -Tubes called connexons -Used for cell communication -Ions flow from one cell to the other
Desmosomes -Anchoring Junctions -Support/reinforce areas -Prevent tearing of tissue -Withstands stress
What are the four types of tissues? Epithelium, Connective, Muscle, Nerve
Epithelium -Forms barriers -Covers or lines organs -Entirely cellular -Avascular -Associated with connective tissue -Highly mitotic -Simple:one layer -Stratified: many layers
Simple squamous epithelium - Function -Found in places needed for exchange of nutrients.
Simple squamous epithelium - Location Kidney glomeruli; air sacs of lungs; lining of heart, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels; lining of ventral body cavity.
Stratified squamous epithelium - Function Protects underlying tissues in areas subject to abrasion. -No diffusion
Stratified squamous epithelium - Location Nonkeratinized type forms the moist linings of the esophagus, mouth, and vagina; keratinized variety forms the epidermis of the skin, a dry membrane.
Simple columnar epithelium - Function -have goblet cells -Absorption; secretion of mucus, enzymes, and other substances
Simple columnar epithelium - Location Nonciliated type lines most of the digestive tract, gallbladder, and excretory ducts of some glands; ciliated lines small bronchi, uterine tubes, and some regions of the uterus.
Transitional epithelium - Function -stratified -outer cells are domed -Stretches readily and permits distension of urinary organ by contained urine
Transitional epithelium - Location Lines the ureters, urinary bladder, and part of the urethra.
Cuboidal epithelium - Function -often called secretory -secretion and absorption -simple or stratified -forms glands and ducts
Cuboidal epithelium - Location Kidney tubules; ducts and secretory portions of small glands; ovary surface
Gland A cell or group of cells that secrete substances into ducts or into the blood. Most of the time, and organ.
Glands secrete material obtained from ______? Blood
Gland classified by... Where they put their secretions
Endocrine glands -Secrete hormones -often called ductless glands -secretes hormones directly into extra cellular space, which then enters the blood
Exocrine glands -secrete their products onto body surfaces (skin) or into body cavities -Exampls: Salivary, Sweat
What is the most abundant type of tissue in the body? Connective
Functions of Connective tissue Support, connection, body defense
What is considered a connective tissue? Blood
General Characteristics of Connective tissue -Almost always vascular -Mitotic capabilities, but slower then epithelial
Connective tissue is composed of... -Cells -ECM
What is ECM made of? Fluid, protein fibers, water, and carbohydrates
What are the three main types of protein fibers? Collagenous, elastic, reticular
Collagenous fibers -support -tendons, ligaments
Elastic fibers -flexible support
Reticular fibers -makes the support system for soft organs -stroma (internal skeleton of soft organs)
Most cells of connective tissues are... Fibroblasts (young)
Fibroblasts -most numerous -secretes lots of ECM
What are the three specialized cells of connective tissue? Osteocytes, chondrocytes, adipocytes
Macrophages -Eat up bacteria -Dispose of dead tissue cells -Peppered throughout loose connective tissue
What are the seven types of connective tissue? Loose, adipose, reticular, dense, cartilage, osseous, blood
Adipose(specialized - Function - Closely packed adipocytes, or fat cells, have nucleus pushed to side by large fat droplet -Provides reserve food fuel -Insulates against heat loss -Supports and protects organs
Adipose(specialized) - Location -Under skin in the hypodermis -around kidneys and eyeballs -within abdomen -in breasts
Loose (areolar) proper - Function -Filler -Supporting and binding other tissues -holding body fluids -defending against infection -storing nutrients as fat
Loose (areolar) proper - Location In some but not all connective tissue
Reticular connective tissue - Function Fibers form a soft internal skeleton that supports other cell types including white blood cells, mast cells, and macrophages
Reticular connective tissue - Location Lymphoid organs (lymph nodes, bone marrow, and spleen).
Dense Connective Tissue - Function -proper -non randomly arranged -very resistent to stress -attaches muscle to bones or to muscles
Dense Connective Tissue - Location Found in tendon and ligaments and dermis
Cartilage -consists of chrondroblasts that make new cell matrix until the skeleton stops growing -made of collagen, elastin, and water -matured chrondoblasts, chrodrocytes, found in lacunae -avascular
Cartilage location located in ends of bones and joints
Osseous (bone) tissue -osteocytes in lacunae -has collagen and calcium -Haversion systems
Blood -vascular -ECM: Plasma + water + solutes -classified as tissue because it is made from mesenchyme and consists of blood cells
Muscle Tissue general characteristics -highly cellular -specialized to contract -generate heat -amitotic (dont regrow)
Muscle Tissue functions -movement -posture -temperature regulation
The four kinds of muscle tissue are... Skeletal, cardiac, smooth
Skeletal Muscle -attached to skeleton -long fibers -more than one nucleus -striated -contractions -easily fatigued -voluntary control
Cardiac Muscle -found in middle layer of heart -forms myocardium -uninucleate -branched striated cells -intercolated disks (only in cardiac muscle) -involuntary control -doesnt fatigue
Smoothe Muscle -not as many nuclei as dense -spindle shaped -uninucleate -nonstriated -peristalsis -involuntary
Nerve Tissue -consists of neurons and neuroglia
Neurons -carry messages -cell body: nucleus -axons and dendrites -amitotic
Neuroglia -surround and support neurons -mitotic -no messages
Functions of skin -Protection -Sensation -Excretion -Synthesis of Vitamin D -Body Temperature regulation -Blood reservoir
Skin protects us from... -Mechanical injury -Chemical injury -Bacterial Infection -Dehydration -UV radiation
Structure of the skin. Superficial to deep Epidermis Dermis Hypodermis (not part of the skin)
Epidermis Stratified Squamous Epithelium Divided into 5 layers
What are the 5 layers of the epidermis? Statum Germinatium Stratum Spinosum Statum granulosum Stradium Lucidum Statum Corneum
Statum Germinatium -Closest layer to dermis (lowest) -mitotic
Stratum Spinosum -8 layers -large nuclei
Statum granulosum -cant really see nucleous -lots of granules
Stradium Lucidum -only in palms and soles -clear
Statum Corneum -horny layer -houses melanin
Dermis -Composed of dense connective tissue -Site of vitamin D production
What are the two layers of the dermis? Papillary (causes fingerprints) and reticular
Hypodermis -Loose connective tissue and adipose -not part of the skin
Hair Function Protection
Each hair consists of... Shaft and root
Hair follicle Grounded in the stratum germanatium Mitotic
Arrector Pili Muscles -responsible for goosebumps -smooth muscle
Nail -Keratinized cells of epidermis
Nails consist of.... Nail Body and Nail Root
Lunula Crescent shaped white area Can be used to find disease
Name three glands... Sebaceous, sudoriferous, cerumen
Sebaceous -Connected to hair follicle
Sudoriferous (sweat) two types apocrine -emotion eccrine - temperature
Three burns are... Superficial - epidermis Partial Thickness -party into the dermis Full Thickness - often down into the hypodermis
Enzyme activity at peak performance at..... 98.6 F
Heat loss = Heat production
80% of our heat loss occurs through... Skin
15-20% of heat is lost thought... breath, feces, urine
Heat is a byproduct of... Cellular Metabolism
When you exercise... -Blood vessels in dermis dialte to get more blood to skin -Sweat glands activate
What other systems help when you exercise? Cardiovascular - heart rate increases Respiratory - Breathing rate increases
Decrease in body temperature... Blood vessels in skin contract Sweat glands become inactive A further decrease causes muscles to contract to create heat
What temperature is hypothermia? 91-94 F
Why is epithelium always associated with connective tissue Because epithelium is avascular so it needs the blood vessels in the connective tissue for nourishment.
Why is epithelium sensitive to chemotherapy? Because chemotherapy attacks cell in mitosis and epithelium undergoes mitosis frequently (every 2-3 days)
What type and kind of tissue contains cilia and goblet cells? Where do you find this tissue? Ciliated columnar epithelium, trachea is one location
Which tissue contains intercalated disks? Cardiac
What do Cardiac and Skeletal muscle have in common? How are they different? Common: striated, ability to contract Different: number and position of nuclei, voluntary vs involuntary
Which kind of connective tissue does not have a lot of extracellular matrix? Adipose
Which 2 connective tissues contain very little water in their ECM? Osseous and Adipose
Created by: gotmilk954