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ch.8&9

Female & Male Reproductive system

TermDefinition
adnexa uteri fallopian tubes, ovaries and supporting ligaments.
amnion innermost membranous sac surrounding the developing fetus
areola dark-pigmented area surrounding the breast nipple
Bartholin glands small mucus-secreting exocrine glands at the vaginal orifice(opening to outside of the body). Caspar Bartholin was a Danish anatomist who described the glands in 1637
cervix lower, neck-like portion of the uterus
chorion outermost layer of the two membranes surrounding the embryo; it forms the fetal part of the placenta
clitoris organ of sensitive erectile tissue anterior to the opening of the female urethra
coitus sexual intercourse; copulation.
corpus luteum empty ovarian follicle that secretes progesterone after release of the egg cell; literally means yellow (luteum) body (corpus)
cul-de-sac region in the lower abdomen, midway between the rectum and the uterus
embryo stage in prenatal development form 2 to 8 weeks
endometrium inner, mucous membrane lining of the uterus
estrogen hormone produced by the ovaries; promotes female secondary sex characteristics
fallopian tube one of a pair of ducts through which the ovum travels to the uterus; also called an oviduct. The tubes were named for Gabriello Fallopia, an Italian anatomist
fertilization union of the sperm cell and ovum from which the embryo develops
fetus stage in prenatal development from 8-39 or 40 weeks
fimbriae fimbria finger or fringe like projections at the end of the fallopian tubes
follicle-stimulating hormone FSH secreted by the pituitary gland to stimulate maturation of the egg cell (ovum)
gamete male or female sexual reproductive cell; sperm cell or ovum
genitalia reproductive organs; also called genitals
gestation period from fertilization of the ovum to birth
gonad female or male reproductive organ that produces sex cells and hormones; ovary or testis
gynecology study of the female reproductive organs including the breasts
human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) hormone produced by the placenta to sustain pregnancy by stimulating (-tropin) the ovaries to produce estrogen and progesterone
hymen mucous membrane partially or completely covering the opening to the vagina
labia lips of the vagina; labia majora are the larger, outermost lips, and labia minora are the smaller, innermost lips
lactiferous ducts tubes that carry milk within the breast
luteinizing hormone (LH) secreted by the pituitary gland to promote ovulation
mammary papilla nipple of the breast. a papilla is any small nipple shaped projection
menarche beginning of the first menstrual period and ability to reproduce
menopause gradual ending of menstruation
menstruation monthly shedding of the uterine lining. The flow of blood and tissue normally discharged during menstruation is called the menses (latin mensis means month)
myometrium muscle layer of the uterus
neonatology branch of medicine that studies the disorders and care of the newborn (neonate)
obstetrics branch of medicine concerned with pregnancy and child birth
orifice an opening
ovarian follicle developing sac enclosing each ovum within the ovary. Only about 400 of these sacs mature in a woman's lifetime
ovary one of a pair of female organs (gonads) on each side of the pelvis. Ovaries are almond-shaped, about the size of large walnuts, and produce egg cells (ova) and hormones.
ovulation release of the ovum from the ovary
ovum ova mature egg cell. ova develop from immature egg cells called oocytes
parturition act of giving birth
perineum in females, the area between the anus and the vagina
pituitary gland endocrine gland at the base of the brain. it produces hormones that stimulate the ovaries. the pituitary gland also regulates other endocrine organs
placenta vascular organ attached to the uterine wall during pregnancy. it permits the exchange of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products between mother and fetus
pregnancy condition in a female of having a developing embryo and fetus in her uterus for about 40 weeks
progesterone hormone produced by the corpus luteum in the ovary and the placenta of pregnant women
puberty point in the life cycle at which secondary sex characteristics appear and gametes are produced
uterine serosa outermost layer surrounding the uterus
uterus hollow, pear-shaped muscular female organ in which the embryo and fetus develop, and from which menstruation occurs. the upper portion is the fundus; the middle portion is the corpus; and the lowermost , neck-like portion is the cervix
vagina muscular, mucosa-lined canal extending from the uterus to the exterior of the body
vulva external female genitalia; includes the labia, hymen, clitoris, and vaginal orifice
zygote stage in prenatal development from fertilization and implantation up to 2 weeks
amni/o amnion
Bartholin/o Bartholin gland
cervic/o cervix, neck
chori/o chorion/o chorion
colp/o vagina
culd/o cul-de-sac
episi/o vulva
galact/o milk
gynec/o woman, female
hyster/o uterus, womb
lact/o milk
mamm/o breast
mast/o breast
men/o menses, menstruation
metr/o metri/o uterus
my/o myom/o muscle, muscle tumor
nat/i birth
obstetr/o pregnancy and childbirth
o/o egg
oophor/o ovary
ov/o egg
ovari/o ovary
ovul/o egg
perine/o perineum
phor/o to bear
salping/o fallopian tubes
uter/o uterus
vagin/o vigina
vulv/o vulva
-arche beginning
-cyesis pregnancy
-gravida pregnant
-parous bearing, bringing forth
-rrhea discharge
-salpinx fallopian tube
-tocia labor, birth
-version act of turning
dys- painful
endo- within
in- in
intra- within
multi- many
nulli- no, not, none
pre- before
primi- first
retro- backward
retroversion the uterus is abnormally tilted backward. this occurs in 30% of women
multigravida a woman who has been pregnant more than once
primigravida a woman during her first pregnancy
HPV vaccine HPV vaccines are given in a series of three shots over 6 months to protect females and makes against HPV infections. Girls can get this vaccine to prevent cervical cancer, vulvar and vaginal cancer, and genital warts.
carcinoma of the cervix malignant cells within the cervix (cervical cancer)
cervicitis inflammation of the cervix
carcinoma of the endometrium (endometrial cancer) malignant tumor of the uterine lining (adenocarcinoma)
endometriosis endometrial tissue located outside the uterus
fibroids benign tumors in the uterus
ovarian carcinoma malignant tumor of the ovary (adenocarcinoma)
ovarian cysts collection of fluid within sacs (cysts) in the ovary
pelvic inflammatory disease inflammation and infection of organs in the pelvic region; salpingitis, oophoritis, endometritis, endocervicitis
carcinoma of the breast (breast cancer) malignant tumor of the breast
mastectomy removal of the entire breast
fibrocystic breast disease numerous small sacs of fluid surrounded by dense strands of fibrous tissue in the breast
abruptio placentae premature separation of the normally implanted placenta
ectopic pregnancy implantation of the fertilized egg in any site other than the normal uterine location
multiple gestations more than one fetus inside the uterus
placenta previa implantation of the placenta over the cervical opening or in the lower region of the uterus
preeclampsia abnormal condition associated with pregnancy, marked by high blood pressure, proteinuria, edema, and headache
eclampsia the final and most severe phase of untreated preeclampsia, it often causes seizures and even death of the mother and baby.
down syndrome chromosomal abnormality .
trisomy 21 down syndrome
erythroblastosis fetalis hemolytic disease in the newborn. caused by a blood group incompatibility between the mother and the fetus
hyaline membrane disease acute lung disease commonly seen in the premature newborn.
hydrocephalus accumulation of fluid in the spaces of the brain
meconium aspiration syndrome abnormal inhalation of meconium produced by a fetus or newborn
pyloric stenosis narrowing of the opening of the stomach to the duodenum
pap test microscopic examination of stained cells removed from the vagina and cervix
pregnancy test blood or urine test to detect the presence of hCG
hysterosalpingography (HSG) x-ray imaging of the uterus and fallopian tubes after injection of contrast material
mammography x-ray imaging of the breast
breast ultrasound imaging and breast MRI technologies using sound waves and magnetic field to create images of breast tissue
pelvic ultrasonography recording images of sound waves as they bounce off organs in the pelvic region
aspiration withdrawal of fluid from a cavity or sac with an instrument using suction
cauterization destruction of tissue by burning
colposcopy visual examination of the vagina and cervix using a colposcope
conization removal of a cone-shaped section of the cervix
cryosurgery use of cold temperatures to destroy tissue
culdocentesis needle aspiration of fluid from the cul-de-sac
dilation and curettage widening the cervix and scraping off the endometrial lining of the uterus.
exenteration removal of internal organs within a cavity
laparoscopy visual examination of the abdominal cavity using an endoscope
tubal ligation blocking the fallopian tubes to prevent fertilization from occurring
abortion termination of pregnancy before the embryo or fetus can exist on its own
amniocentesis needle puncture of the amniotic sac to withdraw amniotic fluid for analysis
cesarean section surgical incision of the abdominal wall and uterus to deliver a fetus
chorionic villus sampling sampling of placental tissues for prenatal diagnosis
fetal monitoring continuous recording of the fetal heart rate and maternal uterine contractions to assess fetal status and the progress of labour.
in vitro fertilization egg and sperm cells are combined outside the body in laboratory dish to facilitate fertilization
bulbourethral glands pair of exocrine glands near the male urethra. They secrete fluid into the urethra. Also called Cowper Glands
ejaculation Ejection of sperm and fluid from the male urethra
ejaculatory duct tube through which semen enters the male urethra
epididymis epididymides one of a pair of long, tightly coiled tubes above each testis. It stores and carries sperm from seminiferous tubules to the vas deferens
erectile dysfunction inability of an adult male to achieve an erection; impotence
flagellum hair-like projection on a sperm cell that makes it motile (able to move)
fraternal twins two infants resulting from fertilization of two separate ova by two separate sperm cells
glans penis sensitive tip of the penis; comparable to the clitoris in the female
identical twins two infants resulting from division of one fertilized egg into two distinct embryos. Conjoined (Siamese) twins are incompletely separated identical twins
interstitial cells of the testes specialized cells that lie adjacent to the seminiferous tubules in the testes. These cells produce testosterone and are also called Leydig Cells
parenchymal tissue essential distinctive cells of an organ. In the testis, the seminiferous tubules that produce sperm are parenchymal
penis male external organ of reproduction
perineum external region between the anus and scrotum in the male
prepuce foreskin; fold of skin covering the tip of the penis
prostate gland exocrine gland at the base of the male urinary bladder. The prostate secretes fluid that contributes to semen during ejaculation.
scrotum external sac that contains the testes
semen spermatozoa and seminal fluid, discharged from the urethra during ejaculation
seminal vesicles paired sac-like exocrine glands that secrete fluid into the vas deferens
seminiferous tubules narrow, coiled tubules that produce sperm in the testes
spermatozoa sperm cell
sterilization procedure that removes a person's ability to produce or release reproductive cells; removal of testicles, vasectomy, and oophorectomy are sterilization procedures
stromal tissue supportive, connective tissue of an organ, as distinguished from its parenchyma. also called stroma
testis testes male gonad (testicle) that produces spermatozoa and the hormone testosterone.
testosterone hormone secreted by the interstitial tissue of the testes; responsible for male sex characteristics.
vas deferens narrow tube carrying sperm from the epididymis toward the urethra. Also called ductus deferens
andr/o male
balan/o glans penis (acorn penis)
cry/o cold
crypt/o hidden
epididym/o epididymis
gon/o seed
hydr/o water/fluid
orch/o orchi/o orchid/o testis, testicles
pen/o penis
prostat/o prostate gland
semin/o semen, seed
sperm/o spermat/o spermatozoa, semen
terat/o monster
test/o testis, testicle
varic/o varicose vein
vas/o vessel, duct, vas deferens
zo/o animal life
-genesis formation
-one hormone
-pexy fixation, put in place
-stomy new opening
carcinoma of the testes testicular cancer malignant tumor of the testicles
androgen testosterone is an androgen. The testes in males and the adrenal glands in both men and women produce androgens
balanitis an inflammation usually caused by overgrowth of organisms (bacteria and yeast)
cryogenic surgery technique for prostate cancer treatment using freezing temperatures to destroy cancer cells
cryptorchidism a congenital condition, one or both testicles do not descend, by the time of birth, into the scrotal sac from the abdominal cavity.
epididymitis inflammation usually caused by bacteria. Signs and symptoms are fever, chills, pain in the groin, and tender, swollen epididymis
orchiectomy castration in males
aspermia lack of semen.
teratoma this tumor occurs in the testes or ovaries and is composed of different types of tissue, such as bone, hair , cartilage, and skin cells.
cryptorchidism cryptorchism undescended testicles
hydrocele sac of clear fluid in the scrotum
testicular torsion twisting of the spermatic cord
varicocele enlarged, dilated veins near the testicle
benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) benign growth of cells within the prostate gland
carcinoma of the prostate prostate cancer malignant tumor of the prostate gland
hypospadias congenital abnormality in which the male urethral opening is on the undersurface of the penis, instead of at its tip
phimosis narrowing of the opening of the prepuce over the glans penis
sexually transmitted infections STI's are infections transmitted by sexual or other genital contact. Also known as sexually transmitted diseases or venereal diseases. They occur in both men and women and are some of the most prevalent communicable diseases in the world
chlamydial infection bacterial invasion of the urethra and reproductive tract.
gonorrhea inflammation of the genital tract mucosa, caused by infection with gonococci (berry shaped bacteria)
herpes genitalis infection of skin and genital mucosa, caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV)
human papillomavirus infection (HPV) infection of the skin and mucous membranes in the anogenital region by the human papillomavirus
syphilis chronic STI cause by a spirochete (spiral-shaped bacterium)
PSA test measurement of levels of prostate-specific antigen in the blood
semen analysis microscopic examination of ejaculated fluid
castration surgical excision of testicles or ovaries
circumcision surgical procedure to remove the prepuce of the penis (removal of foreskin)
digital rectal examination finger palpation through the anal canal and rectum to examine the prostate gland
photoselective vaporization of the prostate (greenlight PVP) removal of tissue to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia using a green light laser
transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) excision of benign prostatic hyperplasia using a resectoscope through the urethra
vasectomy bilateral surgical removal of a part of the vas deferens
Created by: ShellyBee