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Digestive System

Parts of the Body

cheil/o Lip cheilosis: an abnormal condition of the lips characterized by scaling of the surface and by the formation of fissures in the corners of the mouth. Labi/o also means lip.
cholecyst/o gallbladder cholecystectomy: A cholecystectomy is the surgical removal of the gallbladder. Chol/e = gall, bile.
choledoch/o common bile duct choledochotomy: surgical incision of the common bile duct
col/o colon colostomy:The suffix -stomy, when used with a combining form for an organ, means an opening to the outside of the body. A stoma is an opening between an organ and the surface of the body
colon/o colon colonic: irrigation of the colon : ENEMA colonoscopy: endoscopic examination of the colon.
dent/i dentibuccal: pertaining to the cheek and teeth. Odont/o also means tooth.
duoden/o duodenum: the first part of the small intestine extending from the pylorus to the jejunum
enter/o intestines, usually small intestine enterocolitis: When two combining forms for gastrointestinal organs are in a term, the one for the organ closer to the mouth appears first.
esophag/o esophagus esophageal: Note: Changing the suffix from -al to -eal softens the final g (e˘-so˘f-a˘-JE¯-a˘l).
faci/o facial: face
gastr/o gastrostomy
gingiv/o gums gingivitis
gloss/o tongue hypoglossal: of or relating to the hypoglossal nerves. Lingu/o also means tongue.
hepat/o liver hepatoma: Also called hepatocellular carcinoma hepatomegaly: enlargement of the liver
ile/o ileum ileocecal sphincter: Also called the ileocecal valve.
jejun/o jejunum choledochojejunostomy: An anastomosis; surgical creation of a passage uniting the common bile duct and the jejunum.
labi/o lip labial: The labial surface faces the lips. Dentists refer to the labial and buccal surfaces as the facial (faci/o = face) surface.
lapar/o abdomen laparoscopy: A form of minimally invasive surgery (MIS). Examples are: laparoscopic cholecystectomy and laparoscopic appendectomy
lingu/o tongue sublingual: situated or administered under the tongue
mandibul/o submandibular: lower jaw mandible submandibular: of, relating to, situated in, or performed in the region below the lower jaw
odont/o orthodontist: Orth/o means straight. periodontist: a branch of dentistry that deals with diseases of the supporting and investing structures of the teeth. endodontist: Performs root canal therapy.
or/o oral: Stomat/o also means mouth.
palat/o palate palatoplasty: Procedure to repair cleft palate and cleft lip; repair of a cleft palate.
pancreat/o pancreas pancreatitis: Inflammation of the pancreas. Digestive enzymes attack pancreatic tissue and damage the gland.
peritone/o peritoneum: The peritoneum is the double-folded membrane surrounding the abdominal cavity. peritonitis: The e of the root has been dropped in this term
pharyng/o throat pharyngeal palatopharyngoplasty: Used to treat cases of snoring or sleep apnea caused by obstructions in the throat or nose.
proct/o anus and rectum proctologist: a branch of medicine dealing with the structure and diseases of the anus, rectum, and sigmoid colon.
pylor/o pyloric sphincter pyloroplasty: plastic surgery on the pylorus (as to enlarge a stricture)
rect/o rectum rectocele: herniation of the rectum through a defect in the intervening fascia into the vagina.
sialaden/o salivary gland sialadenitis: inflammation of a salivary gland
sigmoid/o sigmoid colon sigmoidoscopy: an endoscope designed to be passed through the anus for visual examination especially of the sigmoid colon
stomat/o mouth stomatitis: any of numerous inflammatory diseases of the mouth
uvul/o uvula uvulectomy: surgical excision of the uvula
an/o anus
append/o appendix appendectomy: Surgery to remove the appendix is known as an appendectomy.
appendic/o appendix appendicitis: Appendicitis is inflammation of the appendix.
bucc/o cheek buccal mucosa: A mucosa is a mucous membrane lining cavities or canals that open to the outside of the body.
cec/o cecum: The large pouch at the beginning of the large intestine, located in the lower right-hand side of the abdomen.
celi/o belly, abdomen celiac: Abdomin/o and lapar/o also mean abdomen. With combining forms that have the same basic meaning, no rule exists for the proper usage of one or the other. You will learn to recognize each in its proper context.
amyl/o starch amylase:The suffix -ase means enzyme
bil/i gall, bile biliary : The biliary tract includes the organs (liver and gallbladder) and ducts (hepatic, cystic, and common bile ducts) that secrete, store, and empty bile into the duodenum.
bilirubin/o bilirubin (bile pigment) hyperbilirubinemia
chol/e gall, bile cholelithiasis: Lith/o means stone or calculus; -iasis means abnormal condition
chlorhydr/o hydrochloric acid achlorhydria: Absence of gastric juice is associated with gastric carcinoma.
gluc/o sugar gluconeogenesis: Liver cells make new sugar from fats and proteins.
glyc/o hyperglycemia
glycogen/o glycogen, animal starch glycogenolysis: Liver cells change glycogen back to glucose when blood sugar levels drop.
lip/o fat, lipid lipoma
lith/o stone lithogenesis
prote/o protein protease
py/o pus pyorrhea: Periodontitis; an advanced stage of periodontal disease (gingivitis).
sial/o saliva, salivary sialolith
steat/o fat steatorrhea: Improperly digested (malabsorbed) fats will appear in the feces.
-ase enzyme lipase: Enzymes speed up chemical reactions. Lipase aids in the digestion of fats. In all types of liver disease, liver enzyme levels may be elevated, indicating damage to liver cells.
-chezia defecation, elimination of wastes hematochezia: (he¯-ma˘-to¯-KE¯-ze¯-a˘) Bright red blood is found in the feces.
-iasis abnormal condition choledocholithiasis
-prandial meal postprandial: Post cibum (p.c.), seen on written prescriptions, also means after meals
Created by: MissMeeMee